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IGCSE is expanded as International General Certificate of Secondary Education in chirle. It is a popular international certification for the secondary school. It is also referred to as O-Level or year 11 or fifth form in respective schools and countries, prior to proceeding to advanced levels such as the sixth form or A-level or 12 &13 year or even the pre-university studies.

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IGCSE was previously University of CIE, Cambridge International Examinations, in 1988. In fact, since 1858, University of Cambridge is the UK local examination board. The term “IGCSE” is a trademark registered of University of Cambridge. Normally, when someone says IGCSE, it is taken as the IGCSE Cambridge from the CIE board.

The curricula of the IGCSE are similar to O-Level rather than the GCSE UK national curriculums. Thus, the examination basis is considered rigorous and more challenging.

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Preparing for General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) maths requires a slightly different strategy as compared to other subjects. Here are some top tricks only a maths coach can tell you to help improve your grade.

Practice - GCSE maths is more like working on a video game. You need to practice, practice and practice till your hands and mind get set. Approach maths in a fun way and not as a burden. Don't burden yourself with immediate results though. If you cannot figure out a calculation at first, leave it for some time and return to it with a fresh mind. Your eventual speed and clarity of mind at the examination will depend entirely upon how much you have practiced. Also, space out your practice sessions like one hour every morning and one hour every evening.

Bite-size - For your GCSE maths studies and revision, divide your coursework into Algebra, Data Handling, Numbers, Shape, Space & Measures. That splits it down to a manageable practice routine. Tackle each section once a week.

Coursework - Don't avoid coursework as it will help you account for quite a bit of the eventual grade - up to 20 per cent! It may be a little extra work but it will keep you tension-free during the final GCSE maths exam.

Short cuts - Learn all the short calculation methods that can make the traditional calculation methods easier and faster. There are short cuts for divisions, multiplications and additions of long sets of numbers. You can easily find these quickie formulas on the Internet. Try puzzles and other useful ideas to quickly check if a number can be divided by a certain digit etc. Getting a high grade in GCSE maths is far easier than in other subjects and you can easily get an A if you try these tips.

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Kota (/ˈktə/ ( listen)) formerly known as Kotah, is a city located in the southeast of northern Indian state of Rajasthan.[4] It is located Around 250 kilometres (155 mi) south of the state capital, Jaipur, situated on the banks of Chambal River. With a population of over 1 million, it is the third most populous city of Rajasthan after Jaipur and Jodhpur, 46th most populous city of India and 53rd most populous urban agglomeration of India. Kota is world’s seventh most densely populated city with a population density of 12100 people per sq km, as per the World Economic Forum (WEF) citing UN Habitat Data. It serves as the administrative headquarters for Kota district and Kota Division. Kota is a major coaching hub of the country for competitive examination preparations and has a number of engineering and medical coaching institutes.[5]

The city of Kota was once the part of the erstwhile Rajput kingdom of Bundi. It became a separate princely state in the 17th century. Apart from the several monuments that reflect the glory of the town, Kota is also known for its palaces and gardens.[6][7] Mahesh Vijay of Bhartiya Janta Party is the current Mayor of Kota.[8] In 2013, Kota was ranked the second most livable city in the state (after Jaipur) and forty-first in the country among 50 cities.[9] The city was also included among 98 Indian cities for Smart Cities Mission initiated by Indian prime minister Narendra Modi in 2015[10] and was listed at 67th place after results of first round were released following which top 20 cities were further selected for funding in the immediate financial year.[11]

See also: Kota State Procession of Raja Ram Singh II of Kota Later Mughal Period, c. 1850

The history of the city dates back to the 12th century AD when Rao Deva, a Chauhan Rajput chieftain belonging to the Hada clan conquered the territory and founded Bundi and Hadoti. Later, in the early 17th century, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, the ruler of Bundi - Rao Ratan Singh, gave the smaller principality of Kota to his son, Madho Singh. Since then Kota became a hallmark of the Rajput gallantry and culture.[12]

Diwali celebrations at medieval Kotah

The independent state of Kota became a reality in 1631 when Rao Madho Singh, the second son of Rao Ratan of Bundi was made the ruler, by the Mughal Emperor Jahangir.[13] Soon Kota outgrew its parent state to become bigger in area, richer in revenue and more powerful. Maharao Bhim Singh played a pivotal role in Kota's history, having held a 'Mansab'[13] of five thousand and being the first in his dynasty to have the title of Maharao. Zalim Singh, a diplomat and statesman, emerged as another prominent figure of the state in the 18th century. Although initially being a general of Kota's army, he rose to the regent of the kingdom after the king died leaving a minor on the throne.[12] He remained a direct administrator of the state. In 1817, a treaty of friendship was signed between him and the British on his condition of carving out a part from the existing state for his descendants resulting in Jhalawar coming into existence in 1838.[12] During the colonial period, firebrand social activist Guru Radha Kishan organised the masses against the policies of the government. He left Kota after local administration came to know about the arrest warrant issued against him for his participation in Indian Independence activities.

See also: Hadoti

Kota city became independent in 1579, after Bundi state in Hadoti region had become weak. Then, Kota ruled the territory which now is Kota district and Baran district.

Kota is located along the banks of the Chambal River in the southern part of Rajasthan. It is the 3rd largest city of Rajasthan after Jaipur and Jodhpur. The cartographic coordinates are 25°11′N 75°50′E / 25.18°N 75.83°E / 25.18; 75.83.[14] It covers an area of 527 km2.[1][15] It has an average elevation of 271 metres (889 ft). The district is bound on the north and north west by Sawai Madhopur, Tonk and Bundi districts. The Chambal River separates these districts from Kota district, forming the natural boundary.

Kishore Sagar Lake

The city of Kota is situated at a centre of the southeastern region of Rajasthan a region very widely known as Hadoti, the land of the Hadas. Kota lies along the banks of the Chambal river on a high sloping tableland forming a part of the Malwa Plateau. The general slope of city is towards the north. The comparatively rocky, barren and elevated land in southern part of city descends towards a plain agricultural land in the north. The Mokandarra hills run from southeast to northwest axis of the town. The historical places and temples are getting surrounded by signs of modern development.

Kota has fertile land and greenery with irrigation facilities through canals. The two main canals; called as left main canal (towards Bundi) and right main canal (towards Baran) originate from the reservoir created by Kota Barrage.[16][17] The tributaries of these canals make up a network in the city and surrounding areas of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh and supplements the irrigation of these areas.[17]

Kota has a semi arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh) with high temperatures throughout the year. Summers are long, hot and dry, starting in late March and lasting till the end of June. The temperatures average above 40 °C in May and June and frequently exceed 45 °C with temperatures as high as 48.4 °C also been recorded.[18] The monsoon season follows with comparatively lower temperatures, but higher humidity and frequent, torrential downpours. The monsoons subside in October and temperatures rise again. The brief, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until the last week of February. Temperatures hover between 26.7 °C (max) to 12 °C (min). This can be considered the best time to visit Kota because of intense heat in the summer.[19]

The average annual rainfall in the Kota district is 660.6 mm.[15] Most of the rainfall can be attributed to the southwest monsoon which has its beginning around the last week of June and may last till mid-September. Pre-monsoon showers begin towards the middle of June with post-monsoon rains occasionally occurring in October. The winter is largely dry, although some rainfall does occur as a result of the Western Disturbance passing over the region.[19]

According to 2011 Census of India, Kota City had a population of 1,001,694, of which male and female are 528,601 and 473,093 respectively.[3][24] The provisional results of census 2011 reported city's population as 1,001,365.[25] The urban agglomeration of Kota consists of city only.[24][26] The sex ratio was 895 and 12.14% were under six years of age. The effective literacy rate was 82.80%, with male literacy at 89.49% and female literacy at 75.33%.[24]

Harauti, a dialect of Rajasthani is widely spoken in Kota with Hindi, Marwari and English being the other languages spoken.[27]

According to 2011 census, Hinduism is the majority religion in the city practised by about 80.5% of the population. Muslims form large minorities (15.9%) followed by Jains (2.2%), Sikhs (0.9%) and Christians (0.4%).[23]

Governmental institutions in Kota include:

Instrumentation Ltd is a Public Sector company based in Kota.[28] Its clientele includes public sector entities such as the Indian Railways, BSNL and VSNL.

The District court provides court and notary services.[29]

Healthcare is provided by a combination of public and private-sector hospitals.[30][31][32]

The main hospitals include:

There are several other hospitals within the city limit.[30]

The city is the trade centre for an area in which cotton, millet, wheat, coriander and oilseeds are grown; industries include cotton and oilseed milling, textile weaving, distilling, dairying, and the manufacture of metal handcrafts.[33] Kota also has an extensive industry of stone-polishing of a stone called Kota Stone, used for the floor and walls of residential and business buildings. Since last 15 years Kota has emerged as an Education hub of the country as producing excellent results in IIT-JEE and medical entrance exams.[5][34][35]

Main article: Kota doria Kota Sari with Gota Patti embroidery

Kota is known for the fine translucent muslins called Masuria Malmal. Originally, such saris were called Masuria because they were woven in Mysore. The weavers were subsequently brought to Kota by Rao Kishore Singh who was a general in the Mughal army. The weavers were brought to Kota in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and the saris came to be known as 'Kota-Masuria'. Kota saris are popularly known as 'Masuria' in Kota and Kotadoria outside the state. 'Doria' means thread.

Weaving in Kota was started by Maharana Bhimdeo in the 18th century.[36] Maharaja Bhim Singh of Kota brought some weavers from the Deccan in the early 18th Century and the craft blossomed under the royal patronage. The warp and weft use a combination of threads creating a fine chequered pattern (Khat) where the cotton portion provides firmness while the silk lends a gossamer finish to the fabric.

The Kota saris like most traditional piece of work had started becoming lost before designer Vidhi Singhania moved to Kota and started working with the workers to revive its market.[37] Many textile shops in the city sell different varieties of Kota doria. These saris have become one of the trademarks of the city.[38]

Storage area of Kota Stone Main article: Kota Stone

The fine-grained variety of limestone quarried from Kota district is known as Kota stone, with rich greenish-blue and brown colours. Kota stone are tough, non water-absorbent, non-slip, and non-porous. The varieties include Kota Blue Natural, Kota Blue Honed, Kota Blue Polished, Kota Blue Cobbles, Kota Brown Natural and Kota Brown Polished.[39]

Kota is one of the industrial hubs in northern India, with chemical, cement,engineering and power plants based there. The total number of industrial units in the district from 2010-11 stood at 12908 with 705 registered units.[40] The district power plants show annual growth of 15-20 % due to their strategic locations.[40]

Kota is surrounded by five power stations within its 50 km radius.

  1. Kota Super Thermal Power Plant – thermal[41]
  2. Rajasthan Atomic Power Station in Rawatbhatha Chittorgarh district (65 kilometres from Kota) – nuclear[42]
  3. NTPC Anta Gas Power Plant in Antah Baran district (50 kilometFertilm Kota) – gas
  4. Jawahar Sagar Power Plant – hydro[43]
  5. Kalisindh Thermal Power Station (in Jhalrapatan, Jhalawar) – thermal

The government and private schools in the city are affiliated with either Central Board of Secondary Education or Board of Secondary Education, Rajasthan and follow a 10+2 plan. The medium of instruction is either English or Hindi.

"Sankalp": Head Office of Allen Career Institute Gaurav Tower at Bansal Classes

The city is specially recognized all over India as a center for preparation of various national level competitive examinations through which the students seek admissions in various engineering and medical colleges of the country. In the past decade the city has emerged as a popular coaching destination for competitive exams preparation and for profit educational services. The education sector of Kota has become a major contributor to the city's economy.[44] Kota is popularly referred to as "the coaching capital of India".[5][34][45] Over 1.5 lakh students from all over the country flock every year towards the city for preparation of various exams such as IIT-JEE, NEET-UG and AIIMS etc.[46][47][48][49][50] Many hostels and PGs are located in Kota near the vicinity of coaching centres for students. Students live here for 2–3 years and prepare for the exams. The annual turnover of the Kota coaching industry is about ₹1500 crore.[51] In a recent raid by Income Tax at a coaching institute, "Allen Career Institute", an amount of ₹100 crore was disclosed hidden in institute's group accounts.[52]

Kota's emergence coaching hub began in 1985 when Vinod Kumar Bansal, an engineer working for J. K. Synthetics Ltd, set up Bansal Classes that eventually became Bansal Classes Private Limited.[53] Some of his instructors started their own institutes making Kota a major educational center.

In the past few years, reports of students committing suicide in the city have increased. As per reports, students feel stressed and get pressurized in order to crack their target competitive exam. As per National Crime Records Bureau report of 2014, 45 suicide cases of students were reported in the city. In year 2015, 17 such cases were found.[54] For the same cause, many coaching centers have also appointed counsellors to help students.[55][56][57][58] Various recreational activities such as sports, yoga etc. have been also brought up to relieve stress in past few months. The various reasons behind the students' stress and suicidal attempts are as follows -

Chambal Express, a toy train in Chatra Vilas Garden

Some of the popular visitor attractions in and near the city include Chambal Garden, Seven Wonders Park, Chatra Vilas Garden, Kota Zoological Park, Kishore Sagar Lake, Jag Mandir, Maharao Madho Singh Museum, Kota Government Museum, Brijraj Bhawan Palace, Garh Palace, Abheda Mahal, Godavari Dham Temple, Rangbari Balaji Temple, Garadia Mahadev Temple, Agamgarh Gurudwara Sahib, Hanging Rock Fountain, Royal Cenotaphs at Kshar Bagh, Kota Barrage, Adarshila Dargah, Darrah National Park and Jawahar Sagar Dam.[60][61][62][63][64]

There are several shopping malls and complexes in Kota. City Mall and Cinemall on Jhalawar road, Centre Square Mall and Akash Mall in Gumanpura and Ahluwalia's The Great Mall of Kota near DCM road are some of the notable retail malls in the city.[65][66]

Kota is well connected with road and rail to all major cities within Rajasthan as well as those located outside the state. It is also connected by air, although only chartered flights are available.[67]

The city is well connected with neighboring cities and districts and with major cities outside the state. National highway No.12 (Jaipur—Jabalpur) and National Highway No.76 pass through the city.[68] National Highway No.76 is a part of East-West Corridor. The total road length in Kota district is 2,052 km. as of March 2011.

There are three bus stations in Kota:[citation needed]

Daily buses carry passengers inter-state as well as within the city. Auto-rickshaws and tempos are also widely used means of public transport[citation needed] within the city.

Entrance of Kota Railway station

Kota is well connected to all the major cities of India. Kota Junction is one of the divisions in West Central Railway.[69] It is an important station on the Delhi-Mumbai main line. There are four railway stations within Kota and in its vicinity. Another suburban station of South Kota city is Dakaniya Talav Railway station which has a stoppage of Avadh Express, Dehradun Express and Ranthambore Express.[70]

Kota Junction

The city is a halt for over 150 trains,[71] including Mumbai Rajdhani Express, August Kranti Rajdhani Express, Mumbai New Delhi Duronto Express, Indore–Jaipur Express, Udaipur SuperFast (Delhi - Udaipur City Express), Dayodaya Express (Jaipur - Jabalpur Express / Ajmer - Jabalpur Express), Jodhpur - Indore Intercity, Hazrat Nizamuddin - Indore Express, Garbha Express, Marusagar Express (Ajmer - Ernakulam Express / Ernakulam Express), Jaipur - Mysore Express, Jaipur - Chennai Express, Jaipur - Coimbatore Express, Jodhpur - Puri Express, Jodhpur - Bhopal Express.

The Delhi—Mumbai railway line passes through the Kota junction. The district has 148.83 km of railway line in the Kota — Ruthia section, 98.72 km on Nagda—Mathura (Mumbai-Delhi) section and 24.26 km on Kota —Chittorgarh section.

A broad-gauge railway facility between Kota and Jodhpur via Jaipur exists.

Kota is also an originating point for many trains like Kota - Damoh Passenger (Kota - Katni Passenger) connecting Kota to Damoh in Madhya Pradesh. The Kota - Indore Intercity Express connects to another major city of Madhya Pradesh, Indore Junction. There is also a Jan Shatabdi Express train, from Kota to national capital Delhi. The other trains include, Kota - Vadodara Passenger, Kota - Sriganganagar Express, Kota - Ajmer, Kota - Jabalpur & Kota - Bina Passenger. Patna – Kota Express connects Kota and Patna cities via Agra, Kanpur, Lucknow and Varanasi.

Kota Airport has had no scheduled services operating since 1999.[72] The nearest international airport is Jaipur International Airport situated 250 km away from Kota.

The city is home to Jay Kaylon Cricket Stadium located in Nayapura area. Among several matches, six Ranji Trophy matches have been played in the stadium.[73][74] The stadium also hosted RCL T20 2016, an inter state cricket league with six participating teams.[75]

There are five major regional TV Channels in Kota.[76]

A wide range of other Hindi, English and other language channels are accessible via cable subscription and direct-broadcast satellite services. Dish TV, Tata Sky, Radiant Digitek, Airtel Digital TV are the prominent DTH entertainment services in Kota.

There are six major daily newspapers in Kota.[77][78][79]

There are five radio stations in Kota, with four broadcasting on the FM band, and one All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band.

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