Igcse Parnka

IGCSE is expanded as International General Certificate of Secondary Education in Parnka. It is a popular international certification for the secondary school. It is also referred to as O-Level or year 11 or fifth form in respective schools and countries, prior to proceeding to advanced levels such as the sixth form or A-level or 12 &13 year or even the pre-university studies.

igcse online learning

 

IGCSE was previously University of CIE, Cambridge International Examinations, in 1988. In fact, since 1858, University of Cambridge is the UK local examination board. The term “IGCSE” is a trademark registered of University of Cambridge. Normally, when someone says IGCSE, it is taken as the IGCSE Cambridge from the CIE board.

The curricula of the IGCSE are similar to O-Level rather than the GCSE UK national curriculums. Thus, the examination basis is considered rigorous and more challenging.

Which is the Best IGCSE Coaching Classes in Parnka?

igcse tutors online

 

Getting great marks in your IGCSE Maths exam can be a challenge. Yet it is essential for going on to more advanced courses. Here are a few steps for getting excellent marks in your IGCSE Maths exam.

1. Pay attention in class. Getting good marks in IGCSE Maths means that you need to understand concepts that will be new to you. Understanding is more than memorizing - you need to understand how the teacher reached the answer instead of just memorizing. If you can understand how to find the solution to the problem then you will be ready to answer the question correctly on the exam.

2. Do all your homework. Homework is often assigned to reinforce what you have learned in class. You need that reinforcement! The best way to learn concepts in IGCSE maths so that you will remember them quickly during the exam is practice, practice, practice! That's largely what homework is for. Without that practice, you might think you have learned the lesson but when you do the test it escapes you. You need the extra practice to help get the maths procedures into you.

5. Get enough sleep and exercise. Now that you know how your brain remembers new maths concepts you can probably understand why enough sleep and exercise is needed. You need that brain of yours to be in top shape! Enough sleep helps you concentrate while exercise also helps clear your brain. This doesn't mean you should be lazy or addicted to exercise until your studies suffer, of course. But you do need balance if you are going to get good marks on your IGCSE Maths exam. This is also another reason to review during the year, not just cramming at the end of the year. If you have to cram too much at the end of the year, you will go to your exam tired and inefficient. Not the way to get top marks!

These are some steps you can take to get good marks on your IGCSE Maths exam.

Tutor

igcse grading system

 

The Indian military services have established numerous and distinguished academies and staff colleges across India for the purpose of training professional soldiers in new generation military sciences, warfare command and strategy, and associated technologies.

Rashtriya Indian Military College: The Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC), Dehradun was founded on 13 March 1922 with the object of providing necessary preliminary training for Indians wishing to become officers in Indian Armed Forces. The institution now runs school classes from 8th to 12th on 10+2 CBSE pattern and serves as a feeder institution to the National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla (Pune), where males who have passed 12th class of school are taken as cadets to receive their initial training for the Army, Navy and Air Force.

The Sainik Schools are a system of schools in India established and managed by the Sainik Schools Society under Ministry of Defence. They were conceived in 1961 by V. K. Krishna Menon, the then Defence Minister of India, to rectify the regional and class imbalance amongst the Officer cadre of the Indian Military, and to prepare students for entry into the National Defence Academy (NDA), Khadakwasla, Pune and Indian Naval Academy. Today there are 25 such schools covering all the states of the country.

The schools come under the purview of respective state governments and Ministry of Defence, and in his Union Budget of 2008, Finance minister, P Chidambaram, allocated Rs 2 crore to each of the 22 Sainik schools, to counter rising attrition in the defence forces, especially at the officer level.

Existing Sainik Schools under Sainik Schools Society, Ministry of Defence

The chief institutions training Indian Army officers are:

Others include:

The Indian Navy has numerous training establishments at various places. The Indian Naval Academy is presently located in Ezhimala, near Kannur in Kerala State.

The Indian Air Force has a Training Command and several training establishments. While technical and other support staff are trained at the various Ground Training Schools, the pilots are trained at the Air Force Academy located at Dundigal, near Hyderabad, Telangana.

The Indian Coast Guard has planned to set up a training establishment for Indian Coast Guard (ICG) personnel at Kannur district of Kerala.

The AFMC is located in Pune, near Mumbai in Maharashtra State. It is an Inter-Services institution. AFMC has multiple roles to perform. These are primarily training of medical undergraduates and post-graduates, dental postgraduates, nursing cadets and paramedical staff. Patient care forms an integral part of its training curriculum and the attached hospital benefits from the expertise available at AFMC. The institution is responsible for providing the entire pool of specialists and super-specialists to Armed Forces by giving them in service training.

The AFMC is well known as one of the premier medical institutions of India, and its entrance test is written by thousands of High School students throughout India (both male and female), who via for its approximately 130 seats. Selected candidates are also required to pass a medical and fitness test on par with those for Officer Cadets. The 5-year course also includes basic military training, on par with that received by all Officer Cadets at other Academies of the Armed Forces, as well as training in battle-field medicine. After graduation, Cadets are to serve for a minimum of seven years in the Indian Army, after which they are free to leave or continue as Commissioned Medical officers.

A Complete Overview of The IGCSE Exam Pattern


http://igcsecoachingclasses.online/virar/

Difference Between Cbse And Icse Koparad

IGCSE is expanded as International General Certificate of Secondary Education in Koparad. It is a popular international certification for the secondary school. It is also referred to as O-Level or year 11 or fifth form in respective schools and countries, prior to proceeding to advanced levels such as the sixth form or A-level or 12 &13 year or even the pre-university studies.

igcse art and design

 

IGCSE was previously University of CIE, Cambridge International Examinations, in 1988. In fact, since 1858, University of Cambridge is the UK local examination board. The term “IGCSE” is a trademark registered of University of Cambridge. Normally, when someone says IGCSE, it is taken as the IGCSE Cambridge from the CIE board.

The curricula of the IGCSE are similar to O-Level rather than the GCSE UK national curriculums. Thus, the examination basis is considered rigorous and more challenging.

Which is the Best IGCSE Coaching Classes in Koparad?

igcse art and design

 

The Indian military services have established numerous and distinguished academies and staff colleges across India for the purpose of training professional soldiers in new generation military sciences, warfare command and strategy, and associated technologies.

Rashtriya Indian Military College: The Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC), Dehradun was founded on 13 March 1922 with the object of providing necessary preliminary training for Indians wishing to become officers in Indian Armed Forces. The institution now runs school classes from 8th to 12th on 10+2 CBSE pattern and serves as a feeder institution to the National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla (Pune), where males who have passed 12th class of school are taken as cadets to receive their initial training for the Army, Navy and Air Force.

The Sainik Schools are a system of schools in India established and managed by the Sainik Schools Society under Ministry of Defence. They were conceived in 1961 by V. K. Krishna Menon, the then Defence Minister of India, to rectify the regional and class imbalance amongst the Officer cadre of the Indian Military, and to prepare students for entry into the National Defence Academy (NDA), Khadakwasla, Pune and Indian Naval Academy. Today there are 25 such schools covering all the states of the country.

The schools come under the purview of respective state governments and Ministry of Defence, and in his Union Budget of 2008, Finance minister, P Chidambaram, allocated Rs 2 crore to each of the 22 Sainik schools, to counter rising attrition in the defence forces, especially at the officer level.

Existing Sainik Schools under Sainik Schools Society, Ministry of Defence

The chief institutions training Indian Army officers are:

Others include:

The Indian Navy has numerous training establishments at various places. The Indian Naval Academy is presently located in Ezhimala, near Kannur in Kerala State.

The Indian Air Force has a Training Command and several training establishments. While technical and other support staff are trained at the various Ground Training Schools, the pilots are trained at the Air Force Academy located at Dundigal, near Hyderabad, Telangana.

The Indian Coast Guard has planned to set up a training establishment for Indian Coast Guard (ICG) personnel at Kannur district of Kerala.

The AFMC is located in Pune, near Mumbai in Maharashtra State. It is an Inter-Services institution. AFMC has multiple roles to perform. These are primarily training of medical undergraduates and post-graduates, dental postgraduates, nursing cadets and paramedical staff. Patient care forms an integral part of its training curriculum and the attached hospital benefits from the expertise available at AFMC. The institution is responsible for providing the entire pool of specialists and super-specialists to Armed Forces by giving them in service training.

The AFMC is well known as one of the premier medical institutions of India, and its entrance test is written by thousands of High School students throughout India (both male and female), who via for its approximately 130 seats. Selected candidates are also required to pass a medical and fitness test on par with those for Officer Cadets. The 5-year course also includes basic military training, on par with that received by all Officer Cadets at other Academies of the Armed Forces, as well as training in battle-field medicine. After graduation, Cadets are to serve for a minimum of seven years in the Indian Army, after which they are free to leave or continue as Commissioned Medical officers.

Get IGCSE Books Online the Easy Way

igcse grading system

 

Network 18 is an Indian mass media company which is owned and operated by Reliance Industries. Headquartered in Noida, India. It has interests in television, print, internet, film, mobile content and allied businesses.

The company was incorporated as a private limited company on 16 February 1996. In April 2006, the name was changed from SGA Finance and Management Services Private Limited to Network18 Fincap Private Limited and subsequently in November 2006, it was converted into a Public Limited company. Network18 got listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange on 2 February 2007. The shares of the company of face value of Rs 5 each opened at Rs 312.10 at the NSE and at Rs 300 at the BSE. The same year in December, its name was changed from Network18 Fincap Limited to Network18 Media & Investments Limited.

The Network 18 Group announced a restructuring plan to create a two listed entity structure for the group in July 2010. The restructuring became effective on 10 June 2011 with the approval of the Delhi High Court and the group successfully completed the re-alignment of its business operation into 2 sections – Network18 and TV18. Network18 undertakes the digital and publishing side of the business and TV18 contains the television assets of the group.[1]

In Jan 2012, there was a large investment by Mukesh Ambani's Reliance Industries Limited in a complex deal that offered a possibility that Ambani-held Independent Media Trust (IMT) might eventually gain a controlling interest.[2] In July 2014, the ownership was transferred to Independent Media Trust. On 29 May 2014, Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) announced it would be acquiring control in Network 18 Media & Investments Ltd, including its subsidiary TV18 Broadcast Ltd. The board of RIL approved funding of up to Rs. 40 billion to Independent Media Trust (IMT), of which RIL is the sole beneficiary, for acquisition of control in Network 18 and its subsidiaries.[3] On 8 July 2014, RIL stated that it has completed the Network18 take-over.[4]

Network 18 through its subsidiary 'TV18 Broadcast Limited', operates news channels. TV18 also operates a joint venture with Viacom, called Viacom18, which houses a portfolio of popular entertainment channels across genres. TV18 also operates a factual entertainment channel History TV18 through a joint venture with A+E Networks.

Network 18 operates following channels.

Viacom18 Motion Pictures - Part of the Viacom18 venture, it is involved in acquisition, production, syndication, marketing and distribution of full-length feature films within India. It also distributes Indian films in several international markets. It has an alliance with Paramount Pictures to distribute and market its films in the Indian subcontinent

IndiaCast Media Distribution Private Limited - It is a joint venture between TV18 Broadcast Limited and Viacom18 Media Private Limited to create a multi-platform 'Content Asset Monetisation' entity. It distributes various channels across multiple distribution platforms such as cable, DTH, IPTV, HITS and MMDS in India and Internationally

Digital Content Network 18's digital content and commerce segment includes a portfolio of brands catering to a wide range of interests and services, including news and entertainment, markets and finance, online shopping and ticketing, and mobile phone services and applications. It includes (i) the content business that spans websites and mobile applications covering general and business news, entertainment, technology and sports (ii) the digital commerce business that includes online and out-of-home shopping and ticketing.[13]


Digital Commerce

Publication

Online Trading Academy


http://igcsecoachingclasses.online/virar/

Igcse Coaching Classes Kargil Nagar

IGCSE is expanded as International General Certificate of Secondary Education in Kargil Nagar. It is a popular international certification for the secondary school. It is also referred to as O-Level or year 11 or fifth form in respective schools and countries, prior to proceeding to advanced levels such as the sixth form or A-level or 12 &13 year or even the pre-university studies.

igcse global perspectives

 

IGCSE was previously University of CIE, Cambridge International Examinations, in 1988. In fact, since 1858, University of Cambridge is the UK local examination board. The term “IGCSE” is a trademark registered of University of Cambridge. Normally, when someone says IGCSE, it is taken as the IGCSE Cambridge from the CIE board.

The curricula of the IGCSE are similar to O-Level rather than the GCSE UK national curriculums. Thus, the examination basis is considered rigorous and more challenging.

Which is the Best IGCSE Coaching Classes in Kargil Nagar?

igcse notes for economics

 

What to look for in a SAT, ACT, or GCSE tutor:

The major goal you have in working with a tutor for school is to raise test scores, such as the SATs or ACT, to improve your performance in a specific area, or, for students in the UK, to improve grades on the GCSE and to successfully complete A-levels. Almost any student can benefit from targeted and personalized tutoring, regardless of their current level of understanding and performance. The following are what you should look for in a college tutor or university tutoring program:

1. Small Class Size:

If you decide to go the group route, make sure it will be interactive, and where most of the participants are at the same level. The last thing you need is to be kept back in your SAT, ACT, or GCSE tutoring class by people who don't know as much as you do, or lost in a class of people who are far ahead.

6. Measurable results:

Not only should the college tutors have references, they should also be able to give you a measurable result of their past teaching, such as the average degree that their students SAT or ACT scores rose, the grades they got on the GCSE, or the level of college they got into.

After your tutoring you will be uniquely suited to go to the university or college that fully meets your potential, and this will make the learning experience truly worth it.

Indian Railways

igcse global perspectives

 

Preparing for General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) maths requires a slightly different strategy as compared to other subjects. Here are some top tricks only a maths coach can tell you to help improve your grade.

Practice - GCSE maths is more like working on a video game. You need to practice, practice and practice till your hands and mind get set. Approach maths in a fun way and not as a burden. Don't burden yourself with immediate results though. If you cannot figure out a calculation at first, leave it for some time and return to it with a fresh mind. Your eventual speed and clarity of mind at the examination will depend entirely upon how much you have practiced. Also, space out your practice sessions like one hour every morning and one hour every evening.

Bite-size - For your GCSE maths studies and revision, divide your coursework into Algebra, Data Handling, Numbers, Shape, Space & Measures. That splits it down to a manageable practice routine. Tackle each section once a week.

Coursework - Don't avoid coursework as it will help you account for quite a bit of the eventual grade - up to 20 per cent! It may be a little extra work but it will keep you tension-free during the final GCSE maths exam.

Short cuts - Learn all the short calculation methods that can make the traditional calculation methods easier and faster. There are short cuts for divisions, multiplications and additions of long sets of numbers. You can easily find these quickie formulas on the Internet. Try puzzles and other useful ideas to quickly check if a number can be divided by a certain digit etc. Getting a high grade in GCSE maths is far easier than in other subjects and you can easily get an A if you try these tips.

A Complete Overview of The IGCSE Exam Pattern


http://igcsecoachingclasses.online/virar/

Part Time Teaching Jobs Coaching Classes Balai

IGCSE is expanded as International General Certificate of Secondary Education in Balai. It is a popular international certification for the secondary school. It is also referred to as O-Level or year 11 or fifth form in respective schools and countries, prior to proceeding to advanced levels such as the sixth form or A-level or 12 &13 year or even the pre-university studies.

igcse grading system

 

IGCSE was previously University of CIE, Cambridge International Examinations, in 1988. In fact, since 1858, University of Cambridge is the UK local examination board. The term “IGCSE” is a trademark registered of University of Cambridge. Normally, when someone says IGCSE, it is taken as the IGCSE Cambridge from the CIE board.

The curricula of the IGCSE are similar to O-Level rather than the GCSE UK national curriculums. Thus, the examination basis is considered rigorous and more challenging.

Which is the Best IGCSE Coaching Classes in Balai?

igcse global perspectives

 

Whether you are an individual or a teacher looking to buy IGCSE books for an entire school, getting the right books at the right price can take a lot of time and money. It's not your fault.

First, you have to navigate between different exam boards like the AQA, EDEXCEL or the CIE IGCSE. No one wants to fall into the trap of buying the wrong IGCSE maths or IGCSE physics books for their syllabus.

Second, buying IGCSE text books can be very expensive. But it doesn't end there, we haven't even begun to talk about IGCSE revision books, past papers, software and answers.

Third, the typical IGCSE book buyer lives abroad. This means that it's much harder to just walk into a shop and buy books for those who REALLY need them.

Buying the year's supply of books can be difficult, but it doesn't have to be. Go direct to the publisher to get the best rates for international GCSE texts.

IGCSE Maths - Strategies to Get Good Marks

igcse tutors online

 

Preparing for General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) maths requires a slightly different strategy as compared to other subjects. Here are some top tricks only a maths coach can tell you to help improve your grade.

Practice - GCSE maths is more like working on a video game. You need to practice, practice and practice till your hands and mind get set. Approach maths in a fun way and not as a burden. Don't burden yourself with immediate results though. If you cannot figure out a calculation at first, leave it for some time and return to it with a fresh mind. Your eventual speed and clarity of mind at the examination will depend entirely upon how much you have practiced. Also, space out your practice sessions like one hour every morning and one hour every evening.

Bite-size - For your GCSE maths studies and revision, divide your coursework into Algebra, Data Handling, Numbers, Shape, Space & Measures. That splits it down to a manageable practice routine. Tackle each section once a week.

Coursework - Don't avoid coursework as it will help you account for quite a bit of the eventual grade - up to 20 per cent! It may be a little extra work but it will keep you tension-free during the final GCSE maths exam.

Short cuts - Learn all the short calculation methods that can make the traditional calculation methods easier and faster. There are short cuts for divisions, multiplications and additions of long sets of numbers. You can easily find these quickie formulas on the Internet. Try puzzles and other useful ideas to quickly check if a number can be divided by a certain digit etc. Getting a high grade in GCSE maths is far easier than in other subjects and you can easily get an A if you try these tips.

Military academies in India


http://igcsecoachingclasses.online/virar/

Vacancy In Coaching Classes Virar

IGCSE Coaching Classes in Virar

Getting great marks in your IGCSE Maths exam can be a challenge. Yet it is essential for going on to more advanced courses in Virar. Here are a few steps for getting excellent marks in your IGCSE Maths exam.

1. Pay attention in class. Getting good marks in IGCSE Maths means that you need to understand concepts that will be new to you. Understanding is more than memorizing – you need to understand how the teacher reached the answer instead of just memorizing. If you can understand how to find the solution to the problem then you will be ready to answer the question correctly on the exam.

2. Do all your homework. Homework is often assigned to reinforce what you have learned in class. You need that reinforcement! The best way to learn concepts in IGCSE maths so that you will remember them quickly during the exam is practice, practice, practice! That’s largely what homework is for. Without that practice, you might think you have learned the lesson but when you do the test it escapes you. You need the extra practice to help get the maths procedures into you.

These are some steps you can take to get good marks on your IGCSE Maths exam in Virar.

igcse global perspectives past papers

 

3. Get enough sleep and exercise. Now that you know how your brain remembers new maths concepts you can probably understand why enough sleep and exercise is needed. You need that brain of yours to be in top shape! Enough sleep helps you concentrate while exercise also helps clear your brain. This doesn’t mean you should be lazy or addicted to exercise until your studies suffer, of course. But you do need balance if you are going to get good marks on your IGCSE Maths exam in Virar. This is also another reason to review during the year, not just cramming at the end of the year. If you have to cram too much at the end of the year, you will go to your exam tired and inefficient. Not the way to get top marks!

igcse art and design

 

Vile Parle (IPA: [ˈʋile ˈpaɾle]), is a suburb of Mumbai. Vile Parle is also the name of the railway station in this suburb.[1] Vile Parle has a significantly strong base of Marathi and Gujarati population. The name "Vile Parle" has been derived from the names of two small but old temples: Virleshwar and Parleshwar. It serves as the location of the first Parle factory.[2] It houses Mumbai's Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport's Domestic Terminal.

Vile Parle is divided into two parts: Vile Parle (East) and Vile Parle (West) separated by the western railway line. The east-west boundaries of Vile Parle are from Juhu (West) to Sahar, Santacruz (East). The north boundary is Andheri and Santa Cruz (South). Vile Parle is also connected to JVPD scheme (Juhu Vile Parle Development scheme).

The first Parle-G factory was established in Vile Parle

Vile Parle has now become a second major education center after Churchgate to Charni Road area with the establishment and growth of a huge educational complex financed by the Vile Parle Kelavani Mandal and Parle Tilak Vidyalaya Association. Thus, at all hours of the day you see a constant flow of students into and out of Vile Parle.

Kingfisher Airlines maintains its head office, the Kingfisher House, in Vile Parle.[3][4] In 2012 Vijay Mallya was trying to sell the Vile Parle Kingfisher House.[5]

One of the leading Indian confectionery and biscuit manufacturers, Parle Products was started in Vile Parle. There is still a factory in Vile Parle East and it is commonly known as Parle Biscuit Factory. In July 2016, Parle stopped operations at its Vile Parle manufacturing unit and will be replaced by its corporate office. Vile Parle also houses the Garware plastics factory. The Dr. Balabhai Nanavati Hospital in Vile Parle was inaugurated by Jawaharlal Nehru in November 1950 and opened in May 1951.

Sanyas Ashram

Vile Parle is a hub of cultural activities throughout the year. Dinanath Mangeshkar Sabhagrugha, is a prestigious auditorium which showcases Marathi theatre and music programs. Institutions like Lokmanya Seva Sangh, Nadkarni Sabhagruha and Parle Tilak Vidyalaya have been holding and promoting cultural programs since 1923. Activities include Majestic Gappa (a forum where prominent personalities from all fields are open-interviewed), Bal-Jallosh (cultural activities for children), counseling for parents and students and many more. Parle Mahotsav is a large event that is held in Vile Parle at the end of every year. Parle Mahotsav was started in 1999 by Vile Parle Cultural Centre (VPCC). Eight competitions were held at that time, 75 prizes distributed and 2,750 individuals participated in it. It appears to be growing every year. The 11th Parle Mahotsav was the biggest so far with 32 competitions, 750 prizes, and a whopping 25,000 participants.

Kala Gurjari is a cultural organization, promoting various forms of arts. They organize various cultural programmes at their office (next to Khasiyat Restaurant, D.J. Road, Vile Parle (W)), or Juhu Jagruti Hall at the Mithibai Commerce College, or in the Bhartiya Vidyabhavan, Andheri campus

Vile Parle is also well known for its food joints. Starting with Lucky Sandwich, corner of the Sai Samarth dosa centre next to him. Various Marathi delicacies like Vada Pav, Misal, Sabudana Vada, Sabudana Khichadi and Potato Poha are served. "Me Marathi" is one such restaurant famous with the locals for its Maharashtrian styled food. Also present is a small eatery called "Chan Chavdar" near Sathaye college. It is particularly frequented by college students with small budgets. Anand wada pav has also been awarded the best wada pav centre in the city.Please give reference.

One of the best college festivals, named 'Umang', also takes place in Vile Parle. It is held at Narsee Monjee College of Commerce and Economics (NM College).

Sanyas Ashram

The ninth Patron of the holy lineage of this tradition His Holines Brahmlin Shri 1008 Mahamandleshwar Swami Maheshwaranand Giri Ji Maharaj first came to Mumbai in mid-1940s and laid the foundation of Sanyas Ashram on 20 January 1945 in the suburb of Vile Parle (West) for propagation of Sanatan Dharma or universal virtues amongst mankind. The fleding Ashram became a full-fledged temple complex in 1952 when the Prana Pratistha of various lifelike and life-size deities was performed.

In the mid-1990s, Shri Swami Ji Maharaj retired at Suratgiri Bangla, Haridwar, and handed over the charge of Sanyas Ashram to Shri Swami Vishveshwaranand Giri Ji Maharaj, who became the eleventh Mahamandleshwar in the holy lineage of gurus and also the current President.

Sanyas Ashram continues to grow into a nationwide institution now under the competent vision of His Holiness Shri 1008 Mahamandleshwar Swami Vishveshwaranand Giri Ji Maharaj and has many branches under its administration.

Parleshwar temple is a Ganesha temple near M. G. Road.

Vile Parle is also known for its numerous educational institutes including:

There are numerous boutique coaching classes found across Vileparle.

Postal codes for Vile Parle are 400057 for east and 400056 for west. There is a huge slum area called Nehru Nagar in JVPD Scheme. There is a famous temple Sanyas Ashram in Vile Parle West where many famous movies have been filmed. Varma Tailors & Cloth Stores which was once a local tailor shop in Vile Parle east is now more than 50 years old. Also in Vile Parle (East) there is a Huge residential colony named "New Airport Colony" which is for the employee of NAA & Metrological Department, the Colony is divided in A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H & O lines. Out of this "F" line is located few meters away from main colony. There is also a community center for kids and adults.

  1. ^ "Ville Parle Railway Station". Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  2. ^ "Parle Factory". Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  3. ^ "Contact Us Archived May 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.." Kingfisher Airlines. Retrieved on 25 August 2009. "Kingfisher Airlines Limited Kingfisher House Western Express Highway Vile Parle (E) Mumbai - 400099 India "
  4. ^ ENS Economic Bureau. "Jet, Kingfisher trying to fly in formation." Indian Express. Tuesday 14 October 2008. Retrieved on 25 August 2009.
  5. ^ "Kingfisher house, Gandhi relics up for sale?" Mid Day. 12 March 2012. Retrieved on 15 March 2012.

Indian Railways

The Indian military services have established numerous and distinguished academies and staff colleges across India for the purpose of training professional soldiers in new generation military sciences, warfare command and strategy, and associated technologies.

Rashtriya Indian Military College: The Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC), Dehradun was founded on 13 March 1922 with the object of providing necessary preliminary training for Indians wishing to become officers in Indian Armed Forces. The institution now runs school classes from 8th to 12th on 10+2 CBSE pattern and serves as a feeder institution to the National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla (Pune), where males who have passed 12th class of school are taken as cadets to receive their initial training for the Army, Navy and Air Force.

The Sainik Schools are a system of schools in India established and managed by the Sainik Schools Society under Ministry of Defence. They were conceived in 1961 by V. K. Krishna Menon, the then Defence Minister of India, to rectify the regional and class imbalance amongst the Officer cadre of the Indian Military, and to prepare students for entry into the National Defence Academy (NDA), Khadakwasla, Pune and Indian Naval Academy. Today there are 25 such schools covering all the states of the country.

The schools come under the purview of respective state governments and Ministry of Defence, and in his Union Budget of 2008, Finance minister, P Chidambaram, allocated Rs 2 crore to each of the 22 Sainik schools, to counter rising attrition in the defence forces, especially at the officer level.

Existing Sainik Schools under Sainik Schools Society, Ministry of Defence

The chief institutions training Indian Army officers are:

Others include:

The Indian Navy has numerous training establishments at various places. The Indian Naval Academy is presently located in Ezhimala, near Kannur in Kerala State.

The Indian Air Force has a Training Command and several training establishments. While technical and other support staff are trained at the various Ground Training Schools, the pilots are trained at the Air Force Academy located at Dundigal, near Hyderabad, Telangana.

The Indian Coast Guard has planned to set up a training establishment for Indian Coast Guard (ICG) personnel at Kannur district of Kerala.

The AFMC is located in Pune, near Mumbai in Maharashtra State. It is an Inter-Services institution. AFMC has multiple roles to perform. These are primarily training of medical undergraduates and post-graduates, dental postgraduates, nursing cadets and paramedical staff. Patient care forms an integral part of its training curriculum and the attached hospital benefits from the expertise available at AFMC. The institution is responsible for providing the entire pool of specialists and super-specialists to Armed Forces by giving them in service training.

The AFMC is well known as one of the premier medical institutions of India, and its entrance test is written by thousands of High School students throughout India (both male and female), who via for its approximately 130 seats. Selected candidates are also required to pass a medical and fitness test on par with those for Officer Cadets. The 5-year course also includes basic military training, on par with that received by all Officer Cadets at other Academies of the Armed Forces, as well as training in battle-field medicine. After graduation, Cadets are to serve for a minimum of seven years in the Indian Army, after which they are free to leave or continue as Commissioned Medical officers.

The 3 Mistakes of My Life

igcse global perspectives past papers

 

Network 18 is an Indian mass media company which is owned and operated by Reliance Industries. Headquartered in Noida, India. It has interests in television, print, internet, film, mobile content and allied businesses.

The company was incorporated as a private limited company on 16 February 1996. In April 2006, the name was changed from SGA Finance and Management Services Private Limited to Network18 Fincap Private Limited and subsequently in November 2006, it was converted into a Public Limited company. Network18 got listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange on 2 February 2007. The shares of the company of face value of Rs 5 each opened at Rs 312.10 at the NSE and at Rs 300 at the BSE. The same year in December, its name was changed from Network18 Fincap Limited to Network18 Media & Investments Limited.

The Network 18 Group announced a restructuring plan to create a two listed entity structure for the group in July 2010. The restructuring became effective on 10 June 2011 with the approval of the Delhi High Court and the group successfully completed the re-alignment of its business operation into 2 sections – Network18 and TV18. Network18 undertakes the digital and publishing side of the business and TV18 contains the television assets of the group.[1]

In Jan 2012, there was a large investment by Mukesh Ambani's Reliance Industries Limited in a complex deal that offered a possibility that Ambani-held Independent Media Trust (IMT) might eventually gain a controlling interest.[2] In July 2014, the ownership was transferred to Independent Media Trust. On 29 May 2014, Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) announced it would be acquiring control in Network 18 Media & Investments Ltd, including its subsidiary TV18 Broadcast Ltd. The board of RIL approved funding of up to Rs. 40 billion to Independent Media Trust (IMT), of which RIL is the sole beneficiary, for acquisition of control in Network 18 and its subsidiaries.[3] On 8 July 2014, RIL stated that it has completed the Network18 take-over.[4]

Network 18 through its subsidiary 'TV18 Broadcast Limited', operates news channels. TV18 also operates a joint venture with Viacom, called Viacom18, which houses a portfolio of popular entertainment channels across genres. TV18 also operates a factual entertainment channel History TV18 through a joint venture with A+E Networks.

Network 18 operates following channels.

Viacom18 Motion Pictures - Part of the Viacom18 venture, it is involved in acquisition, production, syndication, marketing and distribution of full-length feature films within India. It also distributes Indian films in several international markets. It has an alliance with Paramount Pictures to distribute and market its films in the Indian subcontinent

IndiaCast Media Distribution Private Limited - It is a joint venture between TV18 Broadcast Limited and Viacom18 Media Private Limited to create a multi-platform 'Content Asset Monetisation' entity. It distributes various channels across multiple distribution platforms such as cable, DTH, IPTV, HITS and MMDS in India and Internationally

Digital Content Network 18's digital content and commerce segment includes a portfolio of brands catering to a wide range of interests and services, including news and entertainment, markets and finance, online shopping and ticketing, and mobile phone services and applications. It includes (i) the content business that spans websites and mobile applications covering general and business news, entertainment, technology and sports (ii) the digital commerce business that includes online and out-of-home shopping and ticketing.[13]


Digital Commerce

Publication

 


Cbse 9th Syllabus Rangaon

IGCSE is expanded as International General Certificate of Secondary Education in Rangaon. It is a popular international certification for the secondary school. It is also referred to as O-Level or year 11 or fifth form in respective schools and countries, prior to proceeding to advanced levels such as the sixth form or A-level or 12 &13 year or even the pre-university studies.

igcse to cbse

 

IGCSE was previously University of CIE, Cambridge International Examinations, in 1988. In fact, since 1858, University of Cambridge is the UK local examination board. The term “IGCSE” is a trademark registered of University of Cambridge. Normally, when someone says IGCSE, it is taken as the IGCSE Cambridge from the CIE board.

The curricula of the IGCSE are similar to O-Level rather than the GCSE UK national curriculums. Thus, the examination basis is considered rigorous and more challenging.

Which is the Best IGCSE Coaching Classes in Rangaon?

igcse art and design

 

Whether you are an individual or a teacher looking to buy IGCSE books for an entire school, getting the right books at the right price can take a lot of time and money. It's not your fault.

First, you have to navigate between different exam boards like the AQA, EDEXCEL or the CIE IGCSE. No one wants to fall into the trap of buying the wrong IGCSE maths or IGCSE physics books for their syllabus.

Second, buying IGCSE text books can be very expensive. But it doesn't end there, we haven't even begun to talk about IGCSE revision books, past papers, software and answers.

Third, the typical IGCSE book buyer lives abroad. This means that it's much harder to just walk into a shop and buy books for those who REALLY need them.

Buying the year's supply of books can be difficult, but it doesn't have to be. Go direct to the publisher to get the best rates for international GCSE texts.

A Complete Overview of The IGCSE Exam Pattern

igcse global perspectives past papers

 

Indian Railways (reporting mark IR) is a state-owned railway company, responsible for rail transport in India. It is owned and operated by the Government of India through the Ministry of Railways. It is the fourth largest railway network in the world comprising 119,630 kilometres (74,330 mi) of total track[4] and 92,081 km (57,216 mi) of running track over a route of 66,687 km (41,437 mi) with 7,216 stations at the end of 2015-16.[2] In 2015-16, IR carried 8.107 billion passengers annually or more than 22 million passengers a day and 1.101 billion tons of freight annually.[2] As of the end of 2015-16, of the total 68,525 km (42,579 mi) route length, 28,327 km (17,602 mi) or 45% were electrified and 28,371 km (17,629 mi) or 37% were double or multiple line routes.[5] The railway network is predominantly a broad gauge network. Small stretches of the network use metre and narrow gauges. All the electrified lines use 25 kV AC electric traction.[2]

Railways were first introduced to India in 1830s for freight transport. The first passenger train ran from Mumbai to Thane in 1853. In 1951 the systems were nationalised as one unit, the Indian Railways, becoming one of the largest networks in the world. IR operates both long distance and suburban rail systems. Indian Railways ran on average 13,313 passenger trains daily in 2015-16. The trains have a five-digit numbering system. Mail or express trains, the most common types, run at an average speed of 50.9 km/hr.[6] As of the end of 2015-16, IR's rolling stock comprised over 251,256 freight wagons, 70,241 passenger coaches and 11,122 locomotives (39 powered by steam, 5,869 by diesel fuel and 5214 by electricity).[2] It also owns locomotive and coach production facilities at several places in India.

Indian Railways is the world's eighth biggest employer and had 1.331 million employees at the end of 2015-16.[3] In 2015–2016 Indian Railways had revenues of 1.683 trillion (US$26 billion), consisting of 1.069 trillion (US$17 billion) freight earnings and 442.83 billion (US$6.9 billion) passengers earnings.[2] It had an operating ratio of 90.5% in 2015-16.[2]

Main article: History of rail transport in India

The history of railway transport in India began in the mid-nineteenth century. A plan for a rail system in India was first put forward in 1832 by the British East India Company. The first rail line of the Indian sub-continent was constructed near Chintadripet Bridge (presently in Chennai) in Madras Presidency in 1836 as an experimental line.[7][8] In 1837, a 3.5-mile (5.6 km) long rail line was established between Red Hills and stone quarries near St. Thomas Mount.[9] A rail line was established on 22 December 1851 for localised hauling of canal construction material in Roorkee.[10]

The Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR) was established in 1845. The country's first passenger railway, built by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR), opened in 1853 with service between Bombay and Thane.[11] The East Indian Railway Company was established 1 June 1845 in London by a deed of settlement with a capital of £4,000,000, primarily raised in London.[12] The Great Southern India Railway Co. was founded in Britain in 1853 and registered in 1859. Construction of track in Madras Presidency began in 1859 and the 80-mile link from Trichinopoly to Negapatam opened in 1861. The Carnatic Railway, founded in 1864, opened a Madras-Arakkonam-Kancheepuram line in 1865. The Great Southern India Railway Company was subsequently merged with the Carnatic Railway Company in 1874 to form the South Indian Railway Company.[13][14]

A British engineer, Robert Maitland Brereton, was responsible for the expansion of the railways from 1857 onwards. The Allahabad-Jabalpur branch line of the East Indian Railway had been opened in June 1867. Brereton was responsible for linking it with the GIPR, resulting in a combined network of 6,400 km (4,000 mi). Hence it became possible to travel directly from Bombay to Calcutta. This route officially opened on 7 March 1870, and it was part of the inspiration for French writer Jules Verne's book Around the World in Eighty Days. At the opening ceremony, the Viceroy Lord Mayo concluded that "it was thought desirable that, if possible, at the earliest possible moment, the whole country should be covered with a network of lines in a uniform system".[15]

By 1875, about £95 million were invested by British companies in India.[16] By 1880 the network had a route mileage of about 14,500 km (9,000 mi), mostly radiating inward from the three major port cities of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. By 1895, India had started building its own locomotives, and in 1896, provided engineers and locomotives to help build the Uganda Railways.

In 1900, the GIPR became a government owned company. The network spread to the modern day states of Assam, Rajputana and Madras Presidency and soon various autonomous kingdoms began their own rail systems. In 1905, a new Railway Board was constituted, with the powers formally vested under Lord Curzon.[17] It operated under the Department of Commerce and Industry and a government railway official served as its chairman, with a railway manager from England and an agent of one of the company railways as the other two members. For the first time in its history, the Railways began to make a profit.

In 1907 almost all rail companies were taken over by the government. The following year, the first electric locomotive made its appearance. In World War I, the railways were used to meet the needs of the British outside India. At the end of the war, the railways were in a state of disrepair and collapse. Large scale corruption by British officials involved in the running of these railways companies was rampant. Profits were never reinvested in the development of British colonial India.[18]

In 1920, with the network having expanded to 61,220 km (38,040 mi),[19] a need for central management was mooted by Sir William Acworth. Based on findings of the East India Railway Committee chaired by Acworth, the government took over the management of the railways and separated railway financing from other governmental revenues.

The period between 1920 and 1929 was a time of economic boom; there were 41,000 mi (66,000 km) of railway lines serving the country; the railways represented a capital value of some 687 million sterling; and they carried over 620 million passengers and approximately 90 million tons of goods each year.[20] Following the Great Depression, the railways suffered economically for the next eight years. The Second World War severely crippled the railways. Starting in 1939, about 40% of the rolling stock, including locomotives and coaches, was taken to the Middle East. The railway workshops were converted to ammunition workshops, and many railway tracks were dismantled to help the Allies in the war. By 1946, all railway systems had been taken over by the government.

Main article: Indian Railway organisational structure

The apex management organisation is the Railway Board, also called the Ministry of Railways. The board is headed by a Chairman who reports to the Minister of Railways. The board has five other members in addition to the chairman. The General Managers of the Zonal Railways and the production units report to the board.

Indian Railways is divided into 17 zones,[21][22] which are further sub-divided into divisions. The number of zones in Indian Railways increased from six to eight in 1951, nine in 1966 and sixteen in 2003.[23][24] Each zonal railway is made up of a certain number of divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. There are a total of sixty-eight divisions.[25][26]

Each zone is headed by a general manager, who reports directly to the Railway Board. The zones are further divided into divisions, under the control of divisional railway managers (DRM). The divisional officers, of engineering, mechanical, electrical, signal and telecommunication, accounts, personnel, operating, commercial, security and safety branches, report to the respective Divisional Railway Manager and are in charge of operation and maintenance of assets. Further down the hierarchy tree are the station masters, who control individual stations and train movements through the track territory under their stations' administration.

Further information: Zones and divisions of Indian Railways Main article: Locomotives in India A WAP 7 class broad gauge AC electric locomotive. A WDM-3D broad gauge diesel locomotive. The Nilgiri Mountain Railway, one of the only few running steam locomotives, in India

Locomotives in India consist of electric and diesel locomotives. The world's first CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) locomotives are also being used.[27]Steam locomotives are no longer used, except in heritage trains. In India, locomotives are classified according to their gauge, motive power, the work they are suited for and their power or model number. The class name includes this information about the locomotive. It comprises 4 or 5 letters. The first letter denotes the track gauge. The second letter denotes their motive power, Diesel or Alternating current (Electric), and the third letter denotes the kind of traffic for which they are suited (goods, passenger, Multi or shunting). The fourth letter used to denote locomotives' chronological model number. However, from 2002 a new classification scheme has been adopted. Under this system, for newer diesel locomotives, the fourth letter will denote their horsepower range. Electric locomotives don't come under this scheme, and even all diesel locos are not covered. For them, this letter denotes their model number as usual.

A locomotive may sometimes have the fifth letter in its name which denotes a technical variant or subclass or subtype. This fifth letter indicates some smaller variation in the basic model or series, perhaps different motors, or a different manufacturer. With the new scheme for classifying diesel locomotives (as mentioned above) the fifth item is a letter that further refines the horsepower indication in 100 hp increments: 'A' for 100 hp, 'B' for 200 hp, 'C' for 300 hp, etc. So in this scheme, a WDM-3A refers to a 3100 hp loco, while a WDM-3D would be a 3400 hp loco and WDM-3F would be 3600 hp loco.

Note: This classification system does not apply to steam locomotives in India as they have become non-functional now. They retained their original class names such as M class or WP class.

Diesel Locomotives are now fitted with Auxiliary Power Units which saves nearly 88% of Fuel during the idle time when train is not running.[28]

The number of goods wagons was 205,596 on 31 March 1951 and reached the maximum number 405,183 on 31 March 1980 after which it started declining and was 239,321 on 31 March 2012.[citation needed] The number is far less than the requirement, and the Indian Railways keeps losing freight traffic to road. Indian Railways carried 93 million tonnes of goods in 1950–51, and it increased to 1010 million tonnes in 2012–13.[29]

However, its share in goods traffic is much lower than road traffic. In 1951, its share was 65%, and the share of the road was 35%. Now the shares have been reversed, and the proportion of railways has declined to 30% and the share of road has increased to 70%.[citation needed]

Since the 1990s, Indian Railways has stopped single-wagon consignments and provides only full rake freight trains.[citation needed]

Wagon types include:[30]

Indian Railways has several types of passenger coaches.

The coaches used in Indian Railways are produced at Integral Coach Factory, Rail Coach Factory, Modern Coach Factory, Raebareli; including the new LHB coaches.

Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) coaches are used for suburban traffic in large cities – mainly Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, Pune, Hyderabad and Bangalore. These coaches numbered 7,793 on 31 March 2012. They have second class and first class seating accommodation.

Passenger coaches numbered 46,722 on 31 March 2012. Other coaches (luggage coach, parcel van, guard's coach, mail coach, etc.) numbered 6,560 on 31 March 2012.

The Chittaranjan Locomotive Works in Chittaranjan makes electric locomotives. The Diesel Locomotive Works in Varanasi makes diesel locomotives. The Integral Coach Factory in Perambur, Chennai makes integral coaches. These have a monocoque construction, and the floor is an integral unit with the undercarriage. The Rail Coach Factory in Kapurthala also makes coaches. The Rail Wheel Factory at Yelahanka, Bangalore and Rail Wheel Plant, Bela, Chhapra, Bihar manufactures wheels and axles, Diesel-Loco Modernisation Works, Patiala upgrade the WDM-2 Diesel loco from 2600 hp to 3100 hp. Some electric locomotives have been supplied by BHEL, Jhansi and Palakkad, and locomotive components are manufactured in several other plants around the country.[31]

Comparison of different gauges common in India with the standard gauge, which is not common in India

The total track length of network is 119,640 km (74,340 mi) while the total route length of the network is 66,687 km (41,437 mi). Track sections are rated for speeds ranging from 80 to 220 km/h (50 to 137 mph), though trains don't really clock speeds of 200 km/h. Maximum speed attained by passenger trains is 177 km/h-180 km/h (110 mph).

Indian gauge 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) (a broad gauge) is the predominant gauge used by Indian Railways with 108,500 km (67,400 mi) of track length (94% of entire track length of all the gauges) and 59,400 km (36,900 mi) of route-kilometre (91% of entire route-kilometre of all the gauges). It is the widest gauge in passenger use in the world. The first railway line built in India was broad gauge line from Bori Bunder (now Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus) to Thane in 1853.

Urban rail transit lines which serve the urban areas are in 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge (except suburban rail which is in Indian gauge). These encompass metro, monorail and trams. As of 2016, lines in operation are Kolkata (Calcutta) tram system, Delhi Metro, Rapid MetroRail Gurgaon, the Bangalore Metro and the Mumbai Metro. These lines are not operated by Indian Railways.[32]

On decreasing routes, the 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge and 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) and 610 mm (2 ft) narrow gauges are present. These were initially introduced in hilly regions for cost considerations and simpler engineering. The metre gauge has about 5,000 km (3,100 mi) of track length (4% of entire track length of all the gauges) and 4,100 km (2,500 mi) of route-kilometre (6% of entire route-kilometre of all the gauges), while narrow gauges have 1,500 km (930 mi) route-kilometre (2% of entire route-kilometre of all the gauges), as of 31 March 2016.

Sleepers (ties) are mostly made up of prestressed concrete. Metal and teak sleepers are still in use on a few lines. This are under conversion to concrete sleepers.

Main article: Central Organisation for Railway Electrification

Around 23,555 km (14,636 mi) of the route-kilometre or 43,357 km (26,941 mi) of running track was electrified, as of 31 March 2016. India uses 25 kV AC traction on all of its electrified tracks.[33]

Electrification started in India with the inauguration of the first electric train between Victoria Terminus now Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and Kurla on 3 February 1925 on the then existing Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIP) at 1500 V DC. The electric traction on the Central Railway was extended up to Igatpuri on the North East line and to Pune on the South East line. 1500 volt DC traction was introduced on the Western Railway between Colaba and Borivili on 5 January 1928 and between Madras Beach and Tambaram of the Southern Railway on 11 May 1931. This was primarily to meet the growing traffic on these metros. Till Independence, India had 388 km of electrification on DC traction.

In the post independence era, electrification of the Howrah-Burdwan section of the Eastern Railway was done at 3000 volt DC during the First Five Year Plan period and completed in 1958. The electric multiple unit (EMU) services were inaugurated in Howrah-Sheoraphuli section on 14 December 1957.

Indian Railways decided in 1957 to adopt the 25 kV AC system of electrification as a standard, with SNCF as their consultant in the initial stages. 25 kV AC traction is the most widely used electric traction in the world. The first section electrified on the 25 kV AC system was Raj Kharswan – Dongoaposi on the South Eastern Railway in 1960. The Howrah – Burdwan section of the Eastern Railway and Madras Beach – Tambaram section of the Southern Railway were converted to the 25 kV AC system by 1968. Considering the limitations in the existing 1500 volt DC, a decision was taken to convert to 25 kV AC traction during 1996-97. Conversion from DC traction to AC traction completed in mid 2010s.

See also: Railway signal and Railway signalling

The Indian Railways mostly use colour signal lights. Earlier the older semaphores and discs-based signalling (depending on the position or colour) were used, but these were replaced by colour signals.[34] Except for some high-traffic sections around large cities and junctions, the network does not use automatic block systems. However, the signals at stations are almost invariably interlocked with the setting of points (routes) and so safety does not depend on the skill of the station masters. With the planned introduction of Cab signalling/Anti collision devices the element of risk on account of drivers overshooting signals will also be eliminated.

Coloured signalling uses multi-coloured lighting, and in many places is automatically controlled. There are three modes:[34]

Multiple aspect signals, by providing several intermediate speed stages between 'clear' and 'on', allow high-speed trains sufficient time to brake safely if required. This becomes very important as train speeds rise. Without multiple-aspect signals, the stop signals must be placed far apart to allow sufficient braking distance and this reduces track utilisation. At the same time, slower trains can also be run closer together on track with multiple aspect signals.

See also: Rail transport in India § Rail links with adjacent countries

Existing rail links:

Under construction / Proposed links:

Main article: Indian Railways coaching stock Interior of a First Class(1A) compartment in the Rajdhani Express Interior of a 3-tier AC(3AC) compartment of the Dakshin Express Interior of an air-conditioned Chair Car (CC) coach in an Jan Shatabdi Express.

Indian Railways has several classes of travel with or without air conditioning. A train may have just one or many classes of travel. Slow passenger trains have only unreserved seating class whereas Rajdhani, Shatabdi, Garib Rath and Yuva trains have only air-conditioned classes. The fares for all classes are different with unreserved seating class being the cheapest. The fare of Rajdhani, Duronto and Shatabdi trains includes food served in the train, but the fare for other trains does not include food that has to be bought separately. From September 2016, the Indian Railways have introduced dynamic fares for all accommodation classes for Rajdhani, Duronto and Shatabdi trains(except 1AC and EC classes) to shore up revenue.[39] In long-distance trains a pantry car is usually included and the food is served at the berth or seat itself. Luxury trains such as Palace on Wheels have separate dining cars, but these trains cost as much as or more than a five-star hotel room.

A standard passenger rake has four unreserved (also called "general") compartments, two at the front and two at the end, of which one may be exclusively for ladies. The exact number of other coaches varies according to the demand and the route. A luggage compartment can also exist at the front or the back. In some mail trains, a separate mail coach is attached. Lavatories are communal and feature both the Indian style as well as the Western style.

The following table lists the classes in operation. A train may not have all these classes.

At the rear of the train is a special compartment known as the guard's cabin. It is fitted with a transceiver and is where the guard usually gives the all clear signal before the train departs.

Gatiman Express. A semi high speed train Mumbai Rajdhani Express. Rajdhanis are long-distance high-speed and high-priority trains connecting major state capitals with New Delhi Secunderabad Yeshwanthpur Garib-Rath Express. Garib-Raths are low cost A/C trains

Trains are sorted into various categories that dictate the number of stops along their route, the priority they enjoy on the network, and the fare structure. Each express train is identified by a five-digit number, the first digit as 1 and 2 for long-distance Express trains. If the first digit is 0, then the train is a Special. The first digit as 5 denotes a passenger train. The second digit indicates the zone that operates the train, the third the division within the zone that controls the train and is responsible for its regular maintenance and cleanliness, and the last two digits are the train's serial number.[43] The system was changed from four digits from 20 December 2010,[44] to accommodate an increasing number of trains.

For super-fast trains, the second digit is always 2 (the first remains 1 or 2),[43] the third digit is the zone, the fourth is the division and only the last digit is the serial number within the division. Trains travelling in opposite directions along the same route are usually labelled with consecutive numbers.[43] However, there is considerable variation in train numbers and some zones, such as Central Railway, has a less systematic method for numbering trains.[43] Most express trains also have a unique name that is usually exotic and taken from landmarks, famous people, rivers and so on.[45][46]

Trains are classified by their average speed.[47] A faster train has fewer stops ("halts") than a slower one and usually caters to long-distance travel.

An Indian Railway Ticket from Salem to Vijayawada by Howrah Mail.

India has some of the lowest train fares in the world, and passenger traffic is heavily subsidised by more expensive higher class fares.[57] Until the late 1980s, Indian Railway ticket reservations were done manually. In late 1987, the Railways started using a computerised ticketing system. The entire ticketing system went online in 1995 to provide up to date information on status and availability. Today the ticketing network is computerised to a large extent, with the exception of some remote places. Computerized tickets can be booked for any two points in the country. Tickets can also be booked through the internet and via mobile phones, though this method carries an additional surcharge.

Discounted tickets are available for senior citizens (above sixty years) and some other categories of passengers including the disabled, students, sports persons, persons affected by serious diseases, or persons appearing for competitive examinations. One compartment of the lowest class of accommodation is earmarked for ladies in every passenger carrying train. Some berths or seats in sleeper class and second class are also earmarked for ladies.[58] Season tickets permitting unlimited travel on specific sections or specific trains for a specific time period may also be available. Foreign tourists can buy an Indrail Pass,[59] which is modelled on the Eurail Pass, permitting unlimited travel in India for a specific time period.

For long-distance travel, reservation of a berth can be done for comfortable travel up to 120 days before the date of intended travel.[58] Details such as the name, age and concession (if eligible) are required and are recorded on the ticket. The ticket price usually includes the base fare, which depends on the classification of the train (example: super-fast surcharge if the train is classified as a super-fast), the class in which one wishes to travel and the reservation charge for overnight journeys.

If a seat is not available, then the ticket is given a wait listed number; else the ticket is confirmed, and a berth number is printed on the ticket. A person receiving a wait listed ticket must wait until there are enough cancellations to enable him to move up the list and obtain a confirmed ticket.[58][59] If his ticket is not confirmed on the day of departure, he may not board the train. Some of the tickets are assigned to the RAC or Reservation against Cancellation, which is between the waiting list and the confirmed list.[58][59] These allow the ticket holder to board the train and obtain an allotted seat decided by a ticket collector, after the ticket collector has ascertained that there is a vacant (absentee) seat.

Reserved Railway Tickets can be booked through the website of Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Ltd.[60] and also through mobile Phones and SMS. Tickets booked through this site are categorised into iTickets and eTickets. iTickets are booked by a passenger and then printed and delivered to the passenger for carrying during journey. eTickets are printed by the passenger and carried while travelling. While travelling on an eTicket, one must carry one of the authorised valid Photo Identity Cards. Cancellation of eTickets are also done online, without the requirement for the passenger to go to any counter. Unreserved tickets are available for purchase on the platform at any time before departure. An unreserved ticket holder may only board the general compartment class. All suburban networks issue unreserved tickets valid for a limited time period. For frequent commuters, a season pass (monthly or quarterly) guarantees unlimited travel between two stops.

In 1999, the Konkan Railway Corporation introduced the Roll on Roll off (RORO) service, a unique road-rail synergy system, on the section between Kolad in Maharashtra and Verna in Goa,[61] which was extended up to Surathkal in Karnataka in 2004.[62][63] The RORO service, the first of its kind in India, allowed trucks to be transported on flatbed trailers. It was highly popular,[64] carrying about 110,000 trucks and bringing in about 740 million worth of earnings to the corporation till 2007.[65]

Main article: Centralised Training Institutes of the Indian Railways

Staff are classified into gazetted (Group 'A' and 'B') and non-gazetted (Group 'C' and 'D') employees.[66] The recruitment of Group 'A' gazetted employees is carried out by the Union Public Service Commission through exams conducted by it.[67] The Recruitment of Group 'B' for the following post Section Officers, Junior Engineers, Depot Material Superintendent posts is conducted by Railway Recruitment Board. The recruitment to Group 'C' and 'D' employees on the Indian Railways is done through 21 Railway Recruitment Boards and Railway Recruitment Cells which are controlled by the Railway Recruitment Control Board (RRCB).[68] The training of all cadres is entrusted and shared between six centralised training institutes.

Indian Railways recruits for lower level positions like ASM, Goods Guard, Clerk, TA, CA, JE, Staff Nurse, Group D etc. through it RRB NTPC (Railway Recruitment Board Non-Technical ) Examination. For the year 2016, the examination was conducted to recruit around 18,000 positions however later Indian railways reduced the vacancies by 4000.[69]

Indian Railways is cash strapped and reported a loss of 300 billion (US$4.7 billion) in the passenger segment for the year ending March 2014. Operating ratio, a key metric used by Indian railways to gauge financial health, is 109% for the period April - Dec in 2016.[70] Railways carry a social obligation of over 200 billion (US$3.1 billion). The loss per passenger-km increased to 23 paise (0.36¢ US) by the end of March 2014. Indian Railways is left with a surplus cash of just 6.9 billion (US$110 million) by the end of March 2014.[71]

It was estimated in 2014 that over 5 trillion (US$78 billion) is required to complete the ongoing projects alone. The railway is consistently losing market share to other modes of transport both in freight and passengers.[72]

New rail line projects are often announced during the Railway Budget annually without securing additional funding for them. Between 2004 and 2014, 99 New Line projects worth 600 billion (US$9.3 billion) were sanctioned out of which only one project is complete till date, and there are four projects that are as old as 30 years but are still not complete for one reason or another.[71]

There are two UNESCO World Heritage Sites on Indian Railways. – The Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus[73] and the Mountain Railways of India. The latter consists of three separate railway lines located in different parts of India:[74]

Main article: Future of the Indian Railways

Indian Railways has a full-fledged organisation known as Research Designs and Standards Organisation (RDSO), located at Lucknow for all research, designs and standardisation tasks.

Solar DEMU Train

[76]

In August 2013, Indian Railways entered into a partnership with Indian Institute of Technology (Madras) to develop technology to trap solar energy for lighting and air-conditioning in the coaches. This would significantly reduce the fossil fuel dependency for Indian Railways.[77]

Recently it developed and tested the Improved Automated Fire Alarm System in Rajdhani Express Trains. It is intended that the system be applied to AC coaches of all regular trains.[78]

In recent years, Indian Railways has undertaken several initiatives to upgrade its ageing infrastructure and enhance its quality of service. The Indian government plans to invest 9.05 trillion (US$140 billion) to upgrade the railways by 2020.[79] Indian Railways is refurbishing 12-15 year old coaches at Carriage Rehabilitation Workshop in Bhopal to enhance passenger amenities and fire safety measures.[80][81] Selected passengers with confirmed tickets will now be allowed to transfer them to someone else, but only once.IRCTC is now offering a pay-on-delivery option for train tickets on its website and app, where the customers can book the tickets and pay when it is delivered.

In July 2017 Indian Railways rolled out its first DEMU train with rooftop solar panels that power the lights, fans, and information display systems inside passenger coaches.[82]

Main article: High-speed rail in India

India does not have any railways classified as high-speed rail (HSR), which have operational speeds in excess of 200 km/h (120 mph).[83] The fastest train in India is the Gatimaan Express with a top speed of 160 km/h (99 mph),[84][85] which runs between Delhi and Agra.[86]

Prior to the 2014 general election, the two major national parties (Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress(INC)) pledged to introduce high-speed rail. The INC pledged to connect all of India's million-plus cities by high-speed rail,[87] whereas BJP, which won the election, promised to build the Diamond Quadrilateral project, which would connect the cities of Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai via high-speed rail.[88] This project was approved as a priority for the new government in the incoming president's speech.[89] Construction of one kilometer of high speed railway track will cost 100 crore (US$16 million) - 140 crore (US$22 million) which is 10-14 times higher than the construction of standard railway.[90]

India's prime minister Narendra Modi approved the choice of Japan to build India's first high-speed railway. The planned rail would run some 500 km (310 mi) between Mumbai and the western city of Ahmedabad, at a top speed of 320 km/h (200 mph).[91][92] Under the proposal, construction is expected to begin in 2017 and be completed in 2023. It would cost about 980 billion (US$15 billion) and be financed by a low-interest loan from Japan.[93] India will use the wheel-based 300 km/hr HSR technology, instead of new maglev 600 km/hr technology of the Japan used in Chuo Shinkansen. India is expected to have its HSR line operational from 2025 onwards, once the safety checks are completed.

The bio-toilets, which have been developed by the railways and the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), have a colony of anaerobic bacteria, kept in a container under the lavatories that convert human waste into water and small amounts of gases. The gases are released into the atmosphere and the water is discharged after chlorination on to the track. The railways currently uses flush toilets in trains, in which human waste is dumped directly on the track. This makes the environment unhygienic and railway stations an eyesore, apart from the fact that the faecal matter corrodes the tracks.

Southern Railways officials say that except for the first- and two-tier AC coaches of Uzhavan Express, the remaining 34 coaches have been fitted with bio-toilets. "These toilets aim at zero defecation on the ground," says Vinay Srivastava, former director-in-charge of the bio-toilet project who is currently working as Director, Ministry of Environment and Forests.

More bio-toilets have been fitted into coaches this year[clarification needed]more than the total bio-toilets fitted in the last three years. According to an IR source, the number of bio-toilets fitted in passenger train coaches from April to July this year this year[clarification needed] was 2,285, against 1,337 bio-toilets fitted during 2012-13, 169 during 2011-12, and 57 during 2010-11.

In 2015, plans were disclosed for building two locomotive factories in the state of Bihar, at Madhepura (electric locomotive) and at Marhaura (Diesel Locomotive).[94] Both factories involve foreign partnerships. The diesel locomotive works will be jointly operated in a partnership with General Electric, which has invested 20.52 billion (US$320 million) for its construction, and the electric locomotive works with Alstom, which has invested 12.935 billion (US$200 million). The factories will provide Indian Railways with 800 electric locomotives of 12,000 horse power each, and a mix of 1,000 diesel locomotives of 4,500 and 6,000 horsepower each.[95] In November 2015, further details of the 146.56 billion (US$2.3 billion) partnership with GE were announced: Indian Railways and GE would engage in an 11-year joint venture in which GE would hold a majority stake of 74%. Under the terms of the joint venture, Indian Railways would purchase 100 goods locomotives a year for 10 years beginning in 2017; the locomotives would be modified versions of the GE Evolution series.[96] The diesel locomotive works will be built by 2018; GE will import the first 100 locomotives and manufacture the remaining 900 in India from 2019, also assuming responsibility for their maintenance over a 13-year period.[97] In the same month, a 200 billion (US$3.1 billion) partnership with Alstom to supply 800 electric locomotives from 2018 to 2028 was announced.[79]

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A Level Schools Karmale

IGCSE is expanded as International General Certificate of Secondary Education in Karmale. It is a popular international certification for the secondary school. It is also referred to as O-Level or year 11 or fifth form in respective schools and countries, prior to proceeding to advanced levels such as the sixth form or A-level or 12 &13 year or even the pre-university studies.

igcse art and design

 

IGCSE was previously University of CIE, Cambridge International Examinations, in 1988. In fact, since 1858, University of Cambridge is the UK local examination board. The term “IGCSE” is a trademark registered of University of Cambridge. Normally, when someone says IGCSE, it is taken as the IGCSE Cambridge from the CIE board.

The curricula of the IGCSE are similar to O-Level rather than the GCSE UK national curriculums. Thus, the examination basis is considered rigorous and more challenging.

Which is the Best IGCSE Coaching Classes in Karmale?

igcse global perspectives past papers

 

The 3 Mistakes of My Life is the third novel written by Chetan Bhagat. The book was published in May 2008 and had an initial print-run of 420,000. The novel follows the story of three friends and is based in the city of Ahmedabad in western India.

This is the third best seller novel by Chetan Bhagat.[1]

Govind: Govind Jaat Patel is an ordinary guy with whom anybody can relate. He has very few desires. His main ambition is to become a businessman as he thinks that, being a Gujarati, business is in his blood. His best friends are Omi and Ish (Ishaan). Govind is doubtful or noncommittal about something. His father has abandoned him and his mother runs a small business. He makes extra income by tutoring maths. He continues these sessions even after starting the cricket shop. He is the narrator of this story and the one who makes the title's "Three Mistakes". During the course of the story he falls in love with Vidya, Ishan's younger sister for whom he is a private tutor. Govind looks after the financial part of the business as he has good business sense and mathematical skills.

Ishaan (Ish) is a big cricket freak and a patriot. Ishaan was the best cricketer in his locality and school. He suggests the name of their business as "Team India Cricket Shop". He helps Govind's business by organising daily cricket coaching camps. He has a younger sister, Vidya, about whom he is quite protective. When he discovers that a boy named Ali is a very talented batsman, he decides to go any length to give Ali proper training. Ishaan usually looks after day-to-day shop activities as he has genuine interest in anything cricket-related.

Omi is the son of the Hindu priest of the local temple. His family enjoys great respect among the people. Through Omi's parents and maternal uncle (who own few shops as a part of the temple trust property), they readily get a place to start their business. He is a rather dumb boy and has not many dreams, but he likes to concentrate on having a healthy body. However, he resents growing up and being a saint like his father. He is a religious person and eventually takes active part in his maternal uncle's religious politics. He is, however, confused about his religious views which are mainly influenced by Bittoo Mama.

Vidya is Ishan's younger sister. She is a rebel at heart and dreams to break free from the constraints of a typical middle-class family and society, to go to Mumbai, do a course in PR and become independent. She, however, despises maths which is required for her medical entrance exams. Hence, Ish asks Govind to take her mathematics tuition. In between their tuition they fall in love which is kept a secret.

Ali is one of the students in Ish's coaching classes and a great batsman because of a rare gift of nature. However, he doesn't play much cricket as he gets tired after three or four balls; he enjoys playing marbles. He is a Muslim and respects Ish like a Guru. He, like Ishaan, is patriotic at heart. He denies the offer of Australian scholarship and wants to play on the Indian side.

Bittoo Mama is the maternal uncle of Omi. Mama runs the trust of the temple and agrees to rent the place to the three friends for the cricket shop. He is an active member of a Hindu political party. He follows the preachings of Parekh-ji, a political-cum-spiritual leader and has complete faith in him. He has locked his horns with Ali's father who belongs to the Secular Party. He has a son, Dhiraj. Mama is not fond of Govind as he is an agnostic. He is the main antagonist of the story.

Govind's mom wants her son to pursue a degree in Engineering. She runs a home-made food business. She cares about Govind a lot and supports him well through his hardships and struggles.

Ali's father: He is a devout Muslim and works for a secular party. He is a very kind-hearted person who wants Ali to take his education seriously despite his mediocre financial condition. He treats the three friends very well when they go to visit Ali in his house. Overall he is a good person.

Fred Li: He is an Australian Cricket Team member and a fast bowler. He invites the three friends and Ali to Sydney when they travel to Goa to see India-Australia One Day International and meet him in the stands. He spots talent in Ali and wants to help him getting a chance to be trained in his academy in Australia. Loosely based on Brett Lee.

  1. Govind had paid a huge amount for buying a shop in Navrangpura shopping mall even though his friends tried to stop him. The mall later got destroyed due to 2001 Gujarat earthquakes .
  2. He fell in love with and had physical intimacy (sexual relationship) with Vidya, Ish's sister
  3. He waited a split second and dived too late to save Ali because of his own selfishness. Ali's wrist was destroyed.

Critics across the country were not too impressed with the book and some even suggested that it was not as good as his previous work. The public reception was good[citation needed] and The 3 Mistakes of My Life sold a lot of copies in the first few weeks.[citation needed]

This English national bestseller has been published in Gujarati language by a leading Gujarati book publisher, M.B.D., based in Ahmedabad & Mumbai. This book has been translated into Tamil and is published by Diamond Pocket Books.[2] The French translation was released by Cherche Midi publisher in March 2010 as Les 3 erreurs de ma vie. It was translated into Sinhala by Dileepa Jayakodi in 2011 as Thun Thakatheerukan Karapu Kenek Man.

The movie version of the novel is Kai Po Che! directed by Abhishek Kapoor starring Sushant Singh Rajput, Amit Sadh; it was released in February 2013. The film and the book are set in Gujarat, hence the title Kai Po Che!

  1. ^ Bhagat., Chetan (May 2008). The 3 Mistakes of My Life. Ahmedabad: rupa. pp. http://www.chetanbhagat.com/books/t3mml/. ISBN 978-8129135513. 
  2. ^ "चेतन भगत की पुस्तकों के हिंदी संस्करणों ने मचाई धूम- 2008100554287800 | India - Oneindia Hindi". Thatshindi.oneindia.in. 2008-10-05. Retrieved 2013-05-18. 

Military academies in India

igcse global perspectives past papers

 

Not to be confused with Legal guardian or Tutor (officer).

A tutor is an instructor who gives private lessons. Shadow education is a name for private supplementary tutoring that is offered outside the mainstream education system.

Normally, a tutor will help a student who is struggling in a subject of some sort. Also, a tutor may be provided for a student who wants to learn at home.

In the United States, the term "tutor" is generally associated with one who gives professional instruction (sometimes within a school setting but often independently) in a given topic or field.

See also: Teaching assistant (United Kingdom)

In British and Irish secondary schools, form tutors are given the responsibilities of a form or class of students in a particular year group (up to 30 students). They usually work in year teams headed by a year leader, year head, or guidance teacher.

Form tutors will provide parents with most of the information about their child's progress and any problems they might be experiencing. Ordinarily, the form tutor is the person who contacts a parent if there is a problem at school; however, the year leader or guidance teacher may contact the parents, since the form tutor has full-time responsibility as a specialist subject teacher.

A 2012 study by the Asian Development Bank and the Comparative Education Research Centre at the University of Hong Kong pointed out that private tutoring can dominate the lives of young people and their families, maintain and exacerbate social inequalities, divert needed household income into an unregulated industry, and create inefficiencies in education systems. It can also undermine official statements about fee-free education and create threats to social cohesion.[1]

In South Korea, nearly 90% of elementary students receive some sort of shadow education.[2] In Hong Kong, about 85% of senior secondary students do so.[3] 60% of primary students in West Bengal, India,[4] and 60% of secondary students in Kazakhstan receive private tutoring.[5]

Demand for tutoring in Asia is exploding; by comparison globally, shadow education is most extensive in Asia. This is partly due to the stratification of education systems, cultural factors, perceptions of shortcomings in regular school systems, and the combination of growing wealth and smaller family sizes.[1] Therefore, the education sector has become a profitable industry which businesses have created different kinds of products and advertisement such us "the king/queen of tutorial", a usual advertisement tactic of Hong Kong tutorial centers that has spread to South Korea, Thailand, Sri Lanka and India where tutors achieve "celebrity-like status".[6] In some cases, successful Southeast Asian tutors will even embrace the title of "tutor". Online private tutor matching platform and online learning platform offering online learning materials are other creations.

In Cambodia, most tutoring is provided by teachers,[7] whereas in Hong Kong, it is provided by individuals, small companies or large companies.[8] In Mongolia, most tutoring is labor-intensive,[9] while entrepreneurs in South Korea make use of computers and other forms of technology.[1]

Some studies have estimated costs associated with "shadow education". In Pakistan, expenditures on tutoring per child averaged $3.40 a month in 2011. In India, average spending was lower, but still equated to about $2 per month.[10]

In Georgia, household expenditures for private tutoring at the secondary school level was $48 million in 2011.[11] In Hong Kong, the business of providing private tutoring to secondary schools reached $255 million in 2011.[12]

In India, a 2008 survey estimated the size of the private tutoring sector to be $6.4 billion.[13] In Japan, families spent a whopping $12 billion in 2010 on private tutoring.[7]

In the Republic of Korea, where the government has attempted to cool down the private tutoring market, shadow education costs have continually grown, reaching a staggering $17.3 billion in 2010. Household expenditures on private tutoring are equivalent to about 80% of government expenditures on public education for primary and secondary students.[14]

In the United States, the tutoring market is fragmented. Some online tutoring marketplaces, however, have managed to aggregate a large number of private tutors on their platform and also tutoring data. For example, one such site has over 34,000 registered tutors in California and made tutoring hourly rate data for California public.[15]

In many countries, individuals can become tutors without training. In some countries, including Cambodia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Lao PDR, and Tajikistan, the pattern of classroom teachers supplementing their incomes by tutoring students after school hours is more a necessity than a choice, as many teachers’ salaries hover close to the poverty line.[1]

In the Republic of Korea, the number of private tutors expanded roughly 7.1% annually on average from 2001 to 2006, and by 2009 the sector was the largest employer of graduates from the humanities and social sciences.[16]

Private tutoring is not always effective in raising academic achievement; and in some schools students commonly skip classes or sleep through lessons because they are tired after excessive external study. This means that the shadow system can make regular schooling less efficient.[1]

Teachers who spend more time focusing on private lessons than regular classes can cause greater inefficiencies in the mainstream school system. Situations in which teachers provide extra private lessons for pupils for whom they are already responsible in the public system can lead to corruption, particularly when teachers deliberately teach less in their regular classes in order to promote the market for private lessons.[17]

When private tutoring is provided by well trained tutor however the effects can be dramatic, with pupils improving performance by two standard deviations.[18] See also Bloom's 2 Sigma Problem.

A 2012 study by the Asian Development Bank and the Comparative Education Research Centre at the University of Hong Kong recommended policymakers across the region take a closer look at how ‘shadow education’ affects family budgets, children’s time, and national education systems. It suggested that in order to reduce the need for private lessons, improvements in mainstream schools should be made. Regulations are also needed to protect consumers.[1]

A private tutor is a private instructor who teaches a specific subject or skill to an individual student or small group of students. Such attention ideally allows the student to improve knowledge or skills more rapidly than in a classroom setting. Tutors are often privately hired and paid by the student, the student's family or an agency. Some are used for remedial students or others needing special attention; some provide more advanced material for exceptionally capable and highly motivated students, or in the context of homeschooling. Tutoring can also occur when one adult helps another adult student to study a specific course or subject that he/she is taking to get a better result. The adult can also let the student work on his/her own, and can be there if the student has any questions. The ultimate goal of a private tutor is to foster independence. When a student no longer requires private tutoring, the tutor successfully puts him/herself out of a job. Ironic as it may seem, a tutor's professional reputation is often measured in terms of the degree of self-imposed obsolescence.

Academic coaching is an evolution of mentoring applied to academics. Coaching involves a collaborative approach. Coaches try to help students learn how they best learn and how to operate in an academic environment. Tutors help students learn the material in individual courses while coaches help students learn how to be successful in school. In college, that includes such topics as: study skills, time management, stress management, effective reading, note-taking, test-taking, and understanding how to use a syllabus. Academic coaches meet with the student regularly throughout the semester. Coaches work with students in all kinds of situations, not just those who are struggling academically. Some highly motivated, high-achieving students will have a coach to improve their learning efficiency. Academic coaching also occurs to help students prepare for entrance exams to gain entry to schools or universities. Tutoring may even be used for the whole application process to university. Academic coaching is a huge industry in Asia. For example, in India, a majority of students, be it of any class or stream, visit a coaching center or a "study circle."[19]

Sometimes, current students act as tutors to other students. Sometimes, a classroom setting is not enough for a student to learn all of the material that they need to know in order to pass the test or to go on to harder classes. Academic tutoring from students at a higher grade level or experience in an academic setting can help to encourage and strengthen a student so that they do not fall behind.

For students, helping other students will be beneficial because the students can check themselves while they teach the lesson(s).[20]

Main article: Online tutoring Computer based learning at a tuition centre

Online tutoring is a new way for a student to receive help, either scheduled or on-demand. Sessions are done through an application where a student and tutor can communicate. Common tools include chat, whiteboard, web conferencing, teleconferencing and other specialized applets which make it easier to convey information back and forth. For example, there are specialized applets designed specifically for mathematics which allow the use of mathematical symbols. There is also an example-tracing tutor program that uses a behavior graph. The tutor is able to create an outline program that works a specific problem step by step. The process is activated once the student selects that problem. This is helpful for those who need help but are not able to meet face to face with someone.[21]

Online tutoring has been gaining popularity over the past couple of years due to the ease of being able to connect to a tutor at moment's notice when help is required.[citation needed] This is especially effective when a student is studying for a test that is scheduled for the next day at school and is stumped on a particular problem. Not all online tutoring companies offer an on-demand tutoring service.

Main article: In-home tutoring

In-home tutoring is a form of tutoring that occurs in the home. Most often the tutoring relates to an academic subject or test preparation. This is in contrast to tutoring centers or tutoring provided through after-school programs. The service most often involves one-on-one attention provided to the pupil.

Solution assistance is a growing trend in the field of mathematics tutoring. This method of checking the accuracy of answers is particularly helpful for students without a computer or those students that live in remote areas.

In Canada and the United States, writing tutor is the common term used for individuals working one-on-one with students in college and university writing centers.[22][23] The terms tutor and consultant are often used interchangeably, and both terms are used with deliberation as they are seen to represent a specific relationship, role, or activity between tutor and tutee. For example, Griffin, Keller, Pandey, Pedersen, and Skinner[24] in their 2003-2004 survey of North American writing centers describe a tutor as an expert providing a less expert learner with knowledge, implying a transmission approach. In contrast, the consultant, also expert, collaborates with the tutee in addressing the writing task, implying a social constructivist approach. The focus of the social constructionism paradigm is to get rid of the idea that tutors are an authoritarian figure instead of someone who the student can collaborate with. Social constructionism is the dominant approach used in writing centers today versus the expressivism approach that was favored in the 1970s and 1980s.[25] Others who use the term writing tutor describe the tutor as facilitating learning through active listening, responding, as well as using silence and wait time.[26] Taking the cue from the student, these writing tutors function much like the consultants described by Griffin et al., offering suggestions and working together on a given writing task. Regardless of the title, the intent and actions of the tutor are important to writing center practitioners. A tutor may say he/she is acting collaboratively with the student and unknowingly be enforcing her or his own agenda.[27]

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Icse Board Full Form Shastri Nagar

IGCSE is expanded as International General Certificate of Secondary Education in Shastri Nagar. It is a popular international certification for the secondary school. It is also referred to as O-Level or year 11 or fifth form in respective schools and countries, prior to proceeding to advanced levels such as the sixth form or A-level or 12 &13 year or even the pre-university studies.

igcse global perspectives

 

IGCSE was previously University of CIE, Cambridge International Examinations, in 1988. In fact, since 1858, University of Cambridge is the UK local examination board. The term “IGCSE” is a trademark registered of University of Cambridge. Normally, when someone says IGCSE, it is taken as the IGCSE Cambridge from the CIE board.

The curricula of the IGCSE are similar to O-Level rather than the GCSE UK national curriculums. Thus, the examination basis is considered rigorous and more challenging.

Which is the Best IGCSE Coaching Classes in Shastri Nagar?

igcse grading system

 

Indian Railways offers different types of travel classes on its coaches, with different patterns of seating or berths, depending on the class of travel.

The following class-accommodation combinations have been created for the system. The following table lists the classes in operation. Not all classes may be attached to a rake though.

Berths are classified as follows:

On any trains, there would normally be 64 seats/berths for 3 tier AC coaches (3A) and 72 seats/berths for 3 tier Sleeper coaches (SL) with the coaches having four entrances two each on either sides of the coach at their ends. These coaches would display the seat/berth numbers painted just above each of their windows that would be in alignment to that particular window. The Higher classes have reduction in their seating/berth capacity, for passenger comfort, based on their class respectively. New LHB rakes have 72 seats/berths for 3 tier AC coaches (3A). Middle berths are found in AC 3-tier Economy class coaches (3E), these coaches are meant for not so well off people, who desire a comfortable travel at lesser fare.

The "Second sitting" have 108 seats but with two additional entrances right in the middle of the coaches on their either sides. Therefore these coaches have six entrances.

Aarakshan

igcse global perspectives past papers

 

Aarakshan (Hindi: आरक्षण, translation: Reservation) is a 2011 Indian Hindi drama film starring Amitabh Bachchan, Saif Ali Khan and Deepika Padukone. Directed by Prakash Jha, the film is a socio-political drama based on the controversial policy of caste based reservations in Indian government jobs and educational institutions. The film also stars Prateik Babbar and Manoj Bajpayee and was released on 12 August 2011 to mostly mixed reviews. However Aarakshan fails to score at the box office. [3]

In 2008, Deepak Kumar (Saif Ali Khan) is at an interview for the teacher's post at an affluent school. The interviewers turn him down when they discover his low-caste roots. Deepak relates the incident to his mentor, Dr. Prabhakar Anand (Amitabh Bachchan). Dr Anand, the legendary principal of renowned STM college, offers Deepak an interim job as a teacher at STM. Deepak is comforted by his friend, Sushant (Prateik Babbar), an upper-caste boy, and his girlfriend Poorvi (Deepika Padukone), who is Dr. Anand's daughter.

The state minister, Baburam, wishes to enroll his no-good nephew at STM. Dr. Anand however, turns him down. The minister decides to install his own man, Mithilesh Singh (Manoj Bajpayee), on the STM college board. Cunning and greedy, Mithilesh seeks only to enrich himself. The minister's grand ambition is to build a multi-billion educational conglomerate, and plans to use Mithilesh's outside business—a coaching class—for it.

The Supreme Court grants reservations for Other Backward Classes. A large crowd of STM students, boisterously celebrating the ruling, arrive at the gates of STM and start a ruckus. Sushant gathers a group of upper-caste boys and tries to drive off the revellers. Dr. Anand hauls Deepak and Sushant, but is shocked to find that Deepak has turned on him. Poorvi later confronts Deepak and orders him to apologise to her father, but he refuses, leading to their break-up.

The backward classes welcome reservations because it provides additional opportunities for education. The upper classes are against reservations because they do not believe in effectiveness of Reservation System. These arguments are played out between Sushant and Deepak. The moderate STM administrators are afraid that college-level reservations may create conflicts between the students. When asked by a reporter, Dr. Anand shares his personal opinion – that some form of reservation, free of politics and economics, is good for society. The next day's headlines scream that Dr. Anand favours reservations. The STM board is outraged; Dr. Anand is warned that Mithilesh will use this to oust him. Dr. Anand resigns from STM, and Mithilesh is appointed as the new principal. Sushant soon realizes that Dr. Anand's intention is not bad and that he does not have caste feeling.

Dr. Anand to his shock finds that his house is being used for K.K coaching classes, which is linked to Mithilesh. Earlier Dr. Anand signs an agreement that he will be the guarantee for the bank loan taken by his friend, and allows his friend's sons to stay in that house for 2 years but they use it to earn money by allowing K.K coaching classes inside the house. Dr. Anand's house lands in civil court case and no lawyer is ready to go against Mithilesh. Meanwhile Deepak who is in USA finds that Dr. Anand has resigned from STM, immediately comes to India, enraged Deepak goes to that house and takes law into his own hands by trying to evacuate people related to K.K coaching classes. Police arrest Deepak, but later Deepak is released on bail by Sushant.

Dr Anand resolves to take out Mithilesh with the only weapon left: teaching. He approaches his friend, Shambhu the cowherd, and takes shelter at the tabela (cowshed). He begins teaching small groups of needy and backward students from the bastee (nearby neighbourhood), at the cowshed. His first success is Muniya (Aanchal Munjal), Shambhu's daughter who comes in first place at the board exam. Muniya's principal offers to send more students to Dr. Anand's tabela school. Deepak and Sushant return to Dr. Anand and join forces, teaching at the tabela school. The tabela students fare much better at the exams than their classmates. The tabela school's reputation grows and begins to draw away students at Mithilesh's coaching class.

Mithilesh responds by obtaining a legal permit to demolish the cowshed. The situation is diffused by the arrival of Shakuntala Tai, the reclusive magnate who started the STM institutions. She calls the chief minister, who promptly averts the destruction of the cowshed. Mithilesh is dismissed, and Dr. Anand is installed as the chief trustee of the STM and lifelong principal of the newly created STM Remedial Center.

Shooting began on 15 January 2011. Director Prakash Jha finished casting but the male lead was not finalised. Ajay Devgan was first considered for the role, however Ajay had many other projects in hand, including Golmaal 3 and Singham. So Jha decided to cast Saif Ali Khan. Khan found it very hard to juggle between two films at once because he had to learn Sanskrit for his role in the film. Bachchan and Saif Ali Khan learnt teaching skills in mathematics from Bihar's Super 30 founder Anand Kumar.[4] Most of the film's shooting took place in Minal Residency, Oriental College, Upper Lake in Bhopal. The shooting finished in early March 2011.

Aarakshan mostly garnered mixed reviews. Taran Adarsh of Bollywood Hungama rated it with 4 stars and said – "On the whole, Aarakshan communicates an engaging story with very relatable characters. It's a movie that is truly inspiring and thought-provoking, but at the same time, its running time [almost 2.45 hours] is a deterrent.(...) Aarakshan not only works as a film, but also as a tool to drive home a forceful message. It's a daring, heroic, commanding and an engaging film that shouldn't be missed!". He also praised the performance of the leads.[5]Nikhat Kazmi of The Times of India gave it 3 stars and said – "Sad. Because as a film on the issue of reservation, Aarakshan was rocking till the first half. But as an omnibus on the travails of India's education system, it flounders into no-man's land. Watch it for the intermittent high drama and the gritty performances, scattered as they are."[6] Shivesh Kumar of IndiaWeekly awarded the movie 3 out of 5 stars.[7]Dainik Bhaskar awarded three stars in their review and wrote – "Watch it for the conflicts between the characters and an outstanding performance by Amitabh Bachchan. On the flipside, if you expect drama and finesse that you witnessed in Prakash Jha's last release 'Rajneeti', you will be disappointed."[8] Vandana Krishnan from Behindwoods rated it 1.5/5 and said that the film represents "Great bottle bad wine" further citing "Overall, the film falls short of the expectations the trailer, start cast and story had created."[9] Saibal Chatterjee from NDTV gave it 2.5 out of 5 stars and said: "Given all the pre-release brouhaha over its emotive subject matter (leading to several states banning its public screening), Aarakshan is quite a copout. It ends up being more about the depredations of the nation’s education mafia than the vexed question of job and college quotas for backward caste candidates and its fallout.The basic premise is rooted in the real world all right and the film might touch some raw nerves. But the dramatisation of the conflict over the quota raj that divides India down the middle tends to border on the excessively shrill, if not completely shallow."[10]Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) chairman Leela Samson said that Aarakshan was a good film about education but "unfortunately hit troubled political situations".[11] The controversial film has received a compliment from unlikely quarters in Chhattisgarh with the state Scheduled Tribes Commission seeking a tax-free status for the Amitabh Bachchan starrer.[12]

Sukanya Venkatraghavan of Filmfare gave it 2 stars out of 5, stating "The problem with Aarakshan is its meandering graph. It starts off solidly enough, keeping up a pace that will engross you until interval time except for two totally unnecessary songs. From there on, the film sheds its theme of ideals and becomes a one on one contest that, to put it really tritely, is a tug of war between two coaching classes. The dialogue is strong and opinionated and actors like Saif Ali Khan and Manoj Bajpai do everything to get you to like the film (...)Aarakshan has all the right intentions but it is a tad confusing in its stance. Of course ultimately it shows the triumph of selfless dedication to the cause of education and there is no faulting that. One does walk away with some reservations though."[13]Rajeev Masand of CNN-IBN gave it 2 out of 5 stars, calling it "a deathly boring slog" and adding: "With so much to say, the movie drags on endlessly, with over-written scenes, over-the-top emotions and dialogues that are so heavy, they end up being inaccessible. Of the performances, every actor seems to go through the motions and only Manoj Bajpai inserts some spark onto the screen. 'Aarakshan' is well-intentioned, but you can't shake off the feeling that you're trapped by a three-hour-long tirade. I'm going with a generous two out of five for Prakash Jha's 'Aarakshan'. If you don't want to be lectured, stay at home."[14]

Amitabh Bachchan at the promotion of Aarakshan at Mehboob Studio, Mumbai

Aarakshan released in 1085 cinemas across India.[15] The film saw 50–70% occupancy on its first day of release, while in Delhi, it opened at around 60–70%.[16] The film's business was affected due to the bans imposed on its screening in Punjab, UP and Andhra. It went on to collect Rs 44.7 million on the first day.[17] The opening weekend collections of the film were around Rs 183.3 million.[18] The film grossed Rs 375.3 million net on Indian box office in two weeks.[19]Aarakshan added around Rs 30 million net in its third week to go to Rs 405.0 million net in three weeks.[20] The film added Rs 5.8 millions net in India to go to Rs 423.8 million net in four weeks.[21] The film added Rs 500,000 net in India to go to Rs 424.3 million net in five weeks.[21]

Moreover, the film fared poorly in the overseas markets. It grossed £76,000 in the United Kingdom, $345,000 in North America, $190,000 in UAE and $82,000 in Australia, taking its total overseas gross to $900,000 over its first weekend.[15] In its third weekend, the film collected £13,085 on 42 screens at the UK box office with a total of £168,662 [approx. Rs 12.7 million], Australian $142,193 [approx.Rs 6926,000] in two weeks at the Australian box office.[22]Aarakshan's total worldwide net collections after three weeks were Rs 605 million. making it a flop movie.[23]

The soundtrack is composed by Shankar Ehsaan Loy. The album consists of six tracks. The soundtrack features the vocal talents of Mohit Chauhan, Shreya Ghoshal, Mahalakshmi Iyer, Raman Mahadevan, Shankar Mahadevan and classical singer Channulal Mishra. The concept of song "Kaun Si Dor" was of Prasoon Joshi, the songwriter of the album who came up with the first lines of the song. The trio then went on to develop the song and roped in Channulal Mishra who agreed to sing the song as per their request. The soundtrack was released on 11 July 2011.

Upon release, the album received generally mixed reviews from the critics. Joginder Tuteja of Bollywood hungama gave it 2 out of 5 stars and said: "Aarakshan doesn't boast of the kind of score that has in it to make waves commercially since almost all songs mainly have a situational appeal to them. Yes, at least 'Achha Lagta Hai' is good that prevents Aarakshan from becoming totally forgettable. However despite low expectations from the soundtrack here, the end result is far more being satisfactory."[25]Planet Bollywood felt that Prasoon Joshi – Shankar-Ehsaan-Loy "failed to create the same magic as in Taare Zameen Par."[26] Sheetal Tiwari of Bollyspice, in her review, described the soundtrack as "brilliant with an astounding lyrical quality." She also praised the composer trio for "their versatility to compose for any subject." It won the Best song award for "Mauka" in IRDS Film awards 2011 by Institute for Research and Documentation in Social Sciences (IRDS), a Lucknow-based Civil society for depicting the contradictory positions being taken on reservation by its opponents and supporters[27]

In early May 2011, civic authorities in Bhopal bulldozed the sets of Aarakshan because it was erected on disputed land.[28]

Some pro-Dalit groups in Kanpur protested Saif Ali Khan being cast in the role of a Dalit.[29] They objected to the actor's royal background and saw his role of a so-called Dalit as an insult to the community.[30]

The film was banned in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Andhra Pradesh before its theatrical release. The Punjab government banned the film on fears that certain scenes and dialogues in the film may inflame the passion of some communities in Punjab.[31] Mayawati government banned the film in UP for two months on grounds that it could create law and order problem in the state.[32]

National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) viewed the movie after getting complaints of its objectionable content. "While the overall theme of the film is not objectionable, it is loaded with anti-Dalit and anti-reservation dialogues," said NCSC chairman P.L. Punia. However, the Board, which granted the film a U/A certification, said it would defend Jha's right to free expression.[33] In reply to this, the director decided to remove 'objectionable' scenes from the film in a bid to prevent further backlash.[34] Prakash Jha and producers of Aarakshan moved the Supreme Court to lift the ban on the film in the three states.[35] Supreme Court lifted the ban on Aarakshan in Uttar Pradesh later.[36]

Apart from the aforementioned announced bans, there was an unexpected mid screening ban on the film in the multiplexes of Gurgaon, on the night of its release.[37]

The 3 Mistakes of My Life


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Igcse Papers Bokadvira

IGCSE is expanded as International General Certificate of Secondary Education in Bokadvira. It is a popular international certification for the secondary school. It is also referred to as O-Level or year 11 or fifth form in respective schools and countries, prior to proceeding to advanced levels such as the sixth form or A-level or 12 &13 year or even the pre-university studies.

igcse global perspectives

 

IGCSE was previously University of CIE, Cambridge International Examinations, in 1988. In fact, since 1858, University of Cambridge is the UK local examination board. The term “IGCSE” is a trademark registered of University of Cambridge. Normally, when someone says IGCSE, it is taken as the IGCSE Cambridge from the CIE board.

The curricula of the IGCSE are similar to O-Level rather than the GCSE UK national curriculums. Thus, the examination basis is considered rigorous and more challenging.

Which is the Best IGCSE Coaching Classes in Bokadvira?

igcse grading system

 

The 3 Mistakes of My Life is the third novel written by Chetan Bhagat. The book was published in May 2008 and had an initial print-run of 420,000. The novel follows the story of three friends and is based in the city of Ahmedabad in western India.

This is the third best seller novel by Chetan Bhagat.[1]

Govind: Govind Jaat Patel is an ordinary guy with whom anybody can relate. He has very few desires. His main ambition is to become a businessman as he thinks that, being a Gujarati, business is in his blood. His best friends are Omi and Ish (Ishaan). Govind is doubtful or noncommittal about something. His father has abandoned him and his mother runs a small business. He makes extra income by tutoring maths. He continues these sessions even after starting the cricket shop. He is the narrator of this story and the one who makes the title's "Three Mistakes". During the course of the story he falls in love with Vidya, Ishan's younger sister for whom he is a private tutor. Govind looks after the financial part of the business as he has good business sense and mathematical skills.

Ishaan (Ish) is a big cricket freak and a patriot. Ishaan was the best cricketer in his locality and school. He suggests the name of their business as "Team India Cricket Shop". He helps Govind's business by organising daily cricket coaching camps. He has a younger sister, Vidya, about whom he is quite protective. When he discovers that a boy named Ali is a very talented batsman, he decides to go any length to give Ali proper training. Ishaan usually looks after day-to-day shop activities as he has genuine interest in anything cricket-related.

Omi is the son of the Hindu priest of the local temple. His family enjoys great respect among the people. Through Omi's parents and maternal uncle (who own few shops as a part of the temple trust property), they readily get a place to start their business. He is a rather dumb boy and has not many dreams, but he likes to concentrate on having a healthy body. However, he resents growing up and being a saint like his father. He is a religious person and eventually takes active part in his maternal uncle's religious politics. He is, however, confused about his religious views which are mainly influenced by Bittoo Mama.

Vidya is Ishan's younger sister. She is a rebel at heart and dreams to break free from the constraints of a typical middle-class family and society, to go to Mumbai, do a course in PR and become independent. She, however, despises maths which is required for her medical entrance exams. Hence, Ish asks Govind to take her mathematics tuition. In between their tuition they fall in love which is kept a secret.

Ali is one of the students in Ish's coaching classes and a great batsman because of a rare gift of nature. However, he doesn't play much cricket as he gets tired after three or four balls; he enjoys playing marbles. He is a Muslim and respects Ish like a Guru. He, like Ishaan, is patriotic at heart. He denies the offer of Australian scholarship and wants to play on the Indian side.

Bittoo Mama is the maternal uncle of Omi. Mama runs the trust of the temple and agrees to rent the place to the three friends for the cricket shop. He is an active member of a Hindu political party. He follows the preachings of Parekh-ji, a political-cum-spiritual leader and has complete faith in him. He has locked his horns with Ali's father who belongs to the Secular Party. He has a son, Dhiraj. Mama is not fond of Govind as he is an agnostic. He is the main antagonist of the story.

Govind's mom wants her son to pursue a degree in Engineering. She runs a home-made food business. She cares about Govind a lot and supports him well through his hardships and struggles.

Ali's father: He is a devout Muslim and works for a secular party. He is a very kind-hearted person who wants Ali to take his education seriously despite his mediocre financial condition. He treats the three friends very well when they go to visit Ali in his house. Overall he is a good person.

Fred Li: He is an Australian Cricket Team member and a fast bowler. He invites the three friends and Ali to Sydney when they travel to Goa to see India-Australia One Day International and meet him in the stands. He spots talent in Ali and wants to help him getting a chance to be trained in his academy in Australia. Loosely based on Brett Lee.

  1. Govind had paid a huge amount for buying a shop in Navrangpura shopping mall even though his friends tried to stop him. The mall later got destroyed due to 2001 Gujarat earthquakes .
  2. He fell in love with and had physical intimacy (sexual relationship) with Vidya, Ish's sister
  3. He waited a split second and dived too late to save Ali because of his own selfishness. Ali's wrist was destroyed.

Critics across the country were not too impressed with the book and some even suggested that it was not as good as his previous work. The public reception was good[citation needed] and The 3 Mistakes of My Life sold a lot of copies in the first few weeks.[citation needed]

This English national bestseller has been published in Gujarati language by a leading Gujarati book publisher, M.B.D., based in Ahmedabad & Mumbai. This book has been translated into Tamil and is published by Diamond Pocket Books.[2] The French translation was released by Cherche Midi publisher in March 2010 as Les 3 erreurs de ma vie. It was translated into Sinhala by Dileepa Jayakodi in 2011 as Thun Thakatheerukan Karapu Kenek Man.

The movie version of the novel is Kai Po Che! directed by Abhishek Kapoor starring Sushant Singh Rajput, Amit Sadh; it was released in February 2013. The film and the book are set in Gujarat, hence the title Kai Po Che!

  1. ^ Bhagat., Chetan (May 2008). The 3 Mistakes of My Life. Ahmedabad: rupa. pp. http://www.chetanbhagat.com/books/t3mml/. ISBN 978-8129135513. 
  2. ^ "चेतन भगत की पुस्तकों के हिंदी संस्करणों ने मचाई धूम- 2008100554287800 | India - Oneindia Hindi". Thatshindi.oneindia.in. 2008-10-05. Retrieved 2013-05-18. 

The 3 Mistakes of My Life

igcse art and design

 

Indian Railways offers different types of travel classes on its coaches, with different patterns of seating or berths, depending on the class of travel.

The following class-accommodation combinations have been created for the system. The following table lists the classes in operation. Not all classes may be attached to a rake though.

Berths are classified as follows:

On any trains, there would normally be 64 seats/berths for 3 tier AC coaches (3A) and 72 seats/berths for 3 tier Sleeper coaches (SL) with the coaches having four entrances two each on either sides of the coach at their ends. These coaches would display the seat/berth numbers painted just above each of their windows that would be in alignment to that particular window. The Higher classes have reduction in their seating/berth capacity, for passenger comfort, based on their class respectively. New LHB rakes have 72 seats/berths for 3 tier AC coaches (3A). Middle berths are found in AC 3-tier Economy class coaches (3E), these coaches are meant for not so well off people, who desire a comfortable travel at lesser fare.

The "Second sitting" have 108 seats but with two additional entrances right in the middle of the coaches on their either sides. Therefore these coaches have six entrances.

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Icse Schools Umela

IGCSE is expanded as International General Certificate of Secondary Education in Umela. It is a popular international certification for the secondary school. It is also referred to as O-Level or year 11 or fifth form in respective schools and countries, prior to proceeding to advanced levels such as the sixth form or A-level or 12 &13 year or even the pre-university studies.

igcse tutors online

 

IGCSE was previously University of CIE, Cambridge International Examinations, in 1988. In fact, since 1858, University of Cambridge is the UK local examination board. The term “IGCSE” is a trademark registered of University of Cambridge. Normally, when someone says IGCSE, it is taken as the IGCSE Cambridge from the CIE board.

The curricula of the IGCSE are similar to O-Level rather than the GCSE UK national curriculums. Thus, the examination basis is considered rigorous and more challenging.

Which is the Best IGCSE Coaching Classes in Umela?

igcse online learning

 

IGCSE examinations are offered by the University of Cambridge, IGCSE stands for International General Certificate Secondary Education. This course is offered in many subjects and many countries.

There are 5 easy steps to pass the IGCSE examination

1. Read the endorsed Books.
In order to pass IGCSE examination, the students should read the books and notes endorsed by the University of Cambridge. University of Cambridge only endorses the books which are written by professional and experienced educators who have a vast knowledge in the particular field.

5. Revision notes

The fifth and the most important step to pass the examination is studying revision notes. The students should prepare their own revision notes in order to understand the concept clearly. If he/she is unable to do so he/she should borrow it from a friend. If your friend does not have get it from an enemy because believe me they will help you get A grades in the IGCSE examination.

How To Choose The Best Tutor for the SAT, ACT, and GCSEs

igcse art and design

 

The 3 Mistakes of My Life is the third novel written by Chetan Bhagat. The book was published in May 2008 and had an initial print-run of 420,000. The novel follows the story of three friends and is based in the city of Ahmedabad in western India.

This is the third best seller novel by Chetan Bhagat.[1]

Govind: Govind Jaat Patel is an ordinary guy with whom anybody can relate. He has very few desires. His main ambition is to become a businessman as he thinks that, being a Gujarati, business is in his blood. His best friends are Omi and Ish (Ishaan). Govind is doubtful or noncommittal about something. His father has abandoned him and his mother runs a small business. He makes extra income by tutoring maths. He continues these sessions even after starting the cricket shop. He is the narrator of this story and the one who makes the title's "Three Mistakes". During the course of the story he falls in love with Vidya, Ishan's younger sister for whom he is a private tutor. Govind looks after the financial part of the business as he has good business sense and mathematical skills.

Ishaan (Ish) is a big cricket freak and a patriot. Ishaan was the best cricketer in his locality and school. He suggests the name of their business as "Team India Cricket Shop". He helps Govind's business by organising daily cricket coaching camps. He has a younger sister, Vidya, about whom he is quite protective. When he discovers that a boy named Ali is a very talented batsman, he decides to go any length to give Ali proper training. Ishaan usually looks after day-to-day shop activities as he has genuine interest in anything cricket-related.

Omi is the son of the Hindu priest of the local temple. His family enjoys great respect among the people. Through Omi's parents and maternal uncle (who own few shops as a part of the temple trust property), they readily get a place to start their business. He is a rather dumb boy and has not many dreams, but he likes to concentrate on having a healthy body. However, he resents growing up and being a saint like his father. He is a religious person and eventually takes active part in his maternal uncle's religious politics. He is, however, confused about his religious views which are mainly influenced by Bittoo Mama.

Vidya is Ishan's younger sister. She is a rebel at heart and dreams to break free from the constraints of a typical middle-class family and society, to go to Mumbai, do a course in PR and become independent. She, however, despises maths which is required for her medical entrance exams. Hence, Ish asks Govind to take her mathematics tuition. In between their tuition they fall in love which is kept a secret.

Ali is one of the students in Ish's coaching classes and a great batsman because of a rare gift of nature. However, he doesn't play much cricket as he gets tired after three or four balls; he enjoys playing marbles. He is a Muslim and respects Ish like a Guru. He, like Ishaan, is patriotic at heart. He denies the offer of Australian scholarship and wants to play on the Indian side.

Bittoo Mama is the maternal uncle of Omi. Mama runs the trust of the temple and agrees to rent the place to the three friends for the cricket shop. He is an active member of a Hindu political party. He follows the preachings of Parekh-ji, a political-cum-spiritual leader and has complete faith in him. He has locked his horns with Ali's father who belongs to the Secular Party. He has a son, Dhiraj. Mama is not fond of Govind as he is an agnostic. He is the main antagonist of the story.

Govind's mom wants her son to pursue a degree in Engineering. She runs a home-made food business. She cares about Govind a lot and supports him well through his hardships and struggles.

Ali's father: He is a devout Muslim and works for a secular party. He is a very kind-hearted person who wants Ali to take his education seriously despite his mediocre financial condition. He treats the three friends very well when they go to visit Ali in his house. Overall he is a good person.

Fred Li: He is an Australian Cricket Team member and a fast bowler. He invites the three friends and Ali to Sydney when they travel to Goa to see India-Australia One Day International and meet him in the stands. He spots talent in Ali and wants to help him getting a chance to be trained in his academy in Australia. Loosely based on Brett Lee.

  1. Govind had paid a huge amount for buying a shop in Navrangpura shopping mall even though his friends tried to stop him. The mall later got destroyed due to 2001 Gujarat earthquakes .
  2. He fell in love with and had physical intimacy (sexual relationship) with Vidya, Ish's sister
  3. He waited a split second and dived too late to save Ali because of his own selfishness. Ali's wrist was destroyed.

Critics across the country were not too impressed with the book and some even suggested that it was not as good as his previous work. The public reception was good[citation needed] and The 3 Mistakes of My Life sold a lot of copies in the first few weeks.[citation needed]

This English national bestseller has been published in Gujarati language by a leading Gujarati book publisher, M.B.D., based in Ahmedabad & Mumbai. This book has been translated into Tamil and is published by Diamond Pocket Books.[2] The French translation was released by Cherche Midi publisher in March 2010 as Les 3 erreurs de ma vie. It was translated into Sinhala by Dileepa Jayakodi in 2011 as Thun Thakatheerukan Karapu Kenek Man.

The movie version of the novel is Kai Po Che! directed by Abhishek Kapoor starring Sushant Singh Rajput, Amit Sadh; it was released in February 2013. The film and the book are set in Gujarat, hence the title Kai Po Che!

  1. ^ Bhagat., Chetan (May 2008). The 3 Mistakes of My Life. Ahmedabad: rupa. pp. http://www.chetanbhagat.com/books/t3mml/. ISBN 978-8129135513. 
  2. ^ "चेतन भगत की पुस्तकों के हिंदी संस्करणों ने मचाई धूम- 2008100554287800 | India - Oneindia Hindi". Thatshindi.oneindia.in. 2008-10-05. Retrieved 2013-05-18. 

How To Choose The Best Tutor for the SAT, ACT, and GCSEs


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