Private Tuition Sonari

IGCSE is expanded as International General Certificate of Secondary Education in Sonari. It is a popular international certification for the secondary school. It is also referred to as O-Level or year 11 or fifth form in respective schools and countries, prior to proceeding to advanced levels such as the sixth form or A-level or 12 &13 year or even the pre-university studies.

igcse grading system


IGCSE was previously University of CIE, Cambridge International Examinations, in 1988. In fact, since 1858, University of Cambridge is the UK local examination board. The term “IGCSE” is a trademark registered of University of Cambridge. Normally, when someone says IGCSE, it is taken as the IGCSE Cambridge from the CIE board.

The curricula of the IGCSE are similar to O-Level rather than the GCSE UK national curriculums. Thus, the examination basis is considered rigorous and more challenging.

Which is the Best IGCSE Coaching Classes inĀ Sonari?

igcse global perspectives past papers


Whether you are an individual or a teacher looking to buy IGCSE books for an entire school, getting the right books at the right price can take a lot of time and money. It's not your fault.

First, you have to navigate between different exam boards like the AQA, EDEXCEL or the CIE IGCSE. No one wants to fall into the trap of buying the wrong IGCSE maths or IGCSE physics books for their syllabus.

Second, buying IGCSE text books can be very expensive. But it doesn't end there, we haven't even begun to talk about IGCSE revision books, past papers, software and answers.

Third, the typical IGCSE book buyer lives abroad. This means that it's much harder to just walk into a shop and buy books for those who REALLY need them.

Buying the year's supply of books can be difficult, but it doesn't have to be. Go direct to the publisher to get the best rates for international GCSE texts.

Network 18

igcse znotes maths


Indian Railways (reporting mark IR) is a state-owned railway company, responsible for rail transport in India. It is owned and operated by the Government of India through the Ministry of Railways. It is the fourth largest railway network in the world comprising 119,630 kilometres (74,330 mi) of total track[4] and 92,081 km (57,216 mi) of running track over a route of 66,687 km (41,437 mi) with 7,216 stations at the end of 2015-16.[2] In 2015-16, IR carried 8.107 billion passengers annually or more than 22 million passengers a day and 1.101 billion tons of freight annually.[2] As of the end of 2015-16, of the total 68,525 km (42,579 mi) route length, 28,327 km (17,602 mi) or 45% were electrified and 28,371 km (17,629 mi) or 37% were double or multiple line routes.[5] The railway network is predominantly a broad gauge network. Small stretches of the network use metre and narrow gauges. All the electrified lines use 25 kV AC electric traction.[2]

Railways were first introduced to India in 1830s for freight transport. The first passenger train ran from Mumbai to Thane in 1853. In 1951 the systems were nationalised as one unit, the Indian Railways, becoming one of the largest networks in the world. IR operates both long distance and suburban rail systems. Indian Railways ran on average 13,313 passenger trains daily in 2015-16. The trains have a five-digit numbering system. Mail or express trains, the most common types, run at an average speed of 50.9 km/hr.[6] As of the end of 2015-16, IR's rolling stock comprised over 251,256 freight wagons, 70,241 passenger coaches and 11,122 locomotives (39 powered by steam, 5,869 by diesel fuel and 5214 by electricity).[2] It also owns locomotive and coach production facilities at several places in India.

Indian Railways is the world's eighth biggest employer and had 1.331 million employees at the end of 2015-16.[3] In 2015–2016 Indian Railways had revenues of 1.683 trillion (US$26 billion), consisting of 1.069 trillion (US$17 billion) freight earnings and 442.83 billion (US$6.9 billion) passengers earnings.[2] It had an operating ratio of 90.5% in 2015-16.[2]

Main article: History of rail transport in India

The history of railway transport in India began in the mid-nineteenth century. A plan for a rail system in India was first put forward in 1832 by the British East India Company. The first rail line of the Indian sub-continent was constructed near Chintadripet Bridge (presently in Chennai) in Madras Presidency in 1836 as an experimental line.[7][8] In 1837, a 3.5-mile (5.6 km) long rail line was established between Red Hills and stone quarries near St. Thomas Mount.[9] A rail line was established on 22 December 1851 for localised hauling of canal construction material in Roorkee.[10]

The Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR) was established in 1845. The country's first passenger railway, built by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR), opened in 1853 with service between Bombay and Thane.[11] The East Indian Railway Company was established 1 June 1845 in London by a deed of settlement with a capital of £4,000,000, primarily raised in London.[12] The Great Southern India Railway Co. was founded in Britain in 1853 and registered in 1859. Construction of track in Madras Presidency began in 1859 and the 80-mile link from Trichinopoly to Negapatam opened in 1861. The Carnatic Railway, founded in 1864, opened a Madras-Arakkonam-Kancheepuram line in 1865. The Great Southern India Railway Company was subsequently merged with the Carnatic Railway Company in 1874 to form the South Indian Railway Company.[13][14]

A British engineer, Robert Maitland Brereton, was responsible for the expansion of the railways from 1857 onwards. The Allahabad-Jabalpur branch line of the East Indian Railway had been opened in June 1867. Brereton was responsible for linking it with the GIPR, resulting in a combined network of 6,400 km (4,000 mi). Hence it became possible to travel directly from Bombay to Calcutta. This route officially opened on 7 March 1870, and it was part of the inspiration for French writer Jules Verne's book Around the World in Eighty Days. At the opening ceremony, the Viceroy Lord Mayo concluded that "it was thought desirable that, if possible, at the earliest possible moment, the whole country should be covered with a network of lines in a uniform system".[15]

By 1875, about £95 million were invested by British companies in India.[16] By 1880 the network had a route mileage of about 14,500 km (9,000 mi), mostly radiating inward from the three major port cities of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. By 1895, India had started building its own locomotives, and in 1896, provided engineers and locomotives to help build the Uganda Railways.

In 1900, the GIPR became a government owned company. The network spread to the modern day states of Assam, Rajputana and Madras Presidency and soon various autonomous kingdoms began their own rail systems. In 1905, a new Railway Board was constituted, with the powers formally vested under Lord Curzon.[17] It operated under the Department of Commerce and Industry and a government railway official served as its chairman, with a railway manager from England and an agent of one of the company railways as the other two members. For the first time in its history, the Railways began to make a profit.

In 1907 almost all rail companies were taken over by the government. The following year, the first electric locomotive made its appearance. In World War I, the railways were used to meet the needs of the British outside India. At the end of the war, the railways were in a state of disrepair and collapse. Large scale corruption by British officials involved in the running of these railways companies was rampant. Profits were never reinvested in the development of British colonial India.[18]

In 1920, with the network having expanded to 61,220 km (38,040 mi),[19] a need for central management was mooted by Sir William Acworth. Based on findings of the East India Railway Committee chaired by Acworth, the government took over the management of the railways and separated railway financing from other governmental revenues.

The period between 1920 and 1929 was a time of economic boom; there were 41,000 mi (66,000 km) of railway lines serving the country; the railways represented a capital value of some 687 million sterling; and they carried over 620 million passengers and approximately 90 million tons of goods each year.[20] Following the Great Depression, the railways suffered economically for the next eight years. The Second World War severely crippled the railways. Starting in 1939, about 40% of the rolling stock, including locomotives and coaches, was taken to the Middle East. The railway workshops were converted to ammunition workshops, and many railway tracks were dismantled to help the Allies in the war. By 1946, all railway systems had been taken over by the government.

Main article: Indian Railway organisational structure

The apex management organisation is the Railway Board, also called the Ministry of Railways. The board is headed by a Chairman who reports to the Minister of Railways. The board has five other members in addition to the chairman. The General Managers of the Zonal Railways and the production units report to the board.

Indian Railways is divided into 17 zones,[21][22] which are further sub-divided into divisions. The number of zones in Indian Railways increased from six to eight in 1951, nine in 1966 and sixteen in 2003.[23][24] Each zonal railway is made up of a certain number of divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. There are a total of sixty-eight divisions.[25][26]

Each zone is headed by a general manager, who reports directly to the Railway Board. The zones are further divided into divisions, under the control of divisional railway managers (DRM). The divisional officers, of engineering, mechanical, electrical, signal and telecommunication, accounts, personnel, operating, commercial, security and safety branches, report to the respective Divisional Railway Manager and are in charge of operation and maintenance of assets. Further down the hierarchy tree are the station masters, who control individual stations and train movements through the track territory under their stations' administration.

Further information: Zones and divisions of Indian Railways Main article: Locomotives in India A WAP 7 class broad gauge AC electric locomotive. A WDM-3D broad gauge diesel locomotive. The Nilgiri Mountain Railway, one of the only few running steam locomotives, in India

Locomotives in India consist of electric and diesel locomotives. The world's first CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) locomotives are also being used.[27]Steam locomotives are no longer used, except in heritage trains. In India, locomotives are classified according to their gauge, motive power, the work they are suited for and their power or model number. The class name includes this information about the locomotive. It comprises 4 or 5 letters. The first letter denotes the track gauge. The second letter denotes their motive power, Diesel or Alternating current (Electric), and the third letter denotes the kind of traffic for which they are suited (goods, passenger, Multi or shunting). The fourth letter used to denote locomotives' chronological model number. However, from 2002 a new classification scheme has been adopted. Under this system, for newer diesel locomotives, the fourth letter will denote their horsepower range. Electric locomotives don't come under this scheme, and even all diesel locos are not covered. For them, this letter denotes their model number as usual.

A locomotive may sometimes have the fifth letter in its name which denotes a technical variant or subclass or subtype. This fifth letter indicates some smaller variation in the basic model or series, perhaps different motors, or a different manufacturer. With the new scheme for classifying diesel locomotives (as mentioned above) the fifth item is a letter that further refines the horsepower indication in 100 hp increments: 'A' for 100 hp, 'B' for 200 hp, 'C' for 300 hp, etc. So in this scheme, a WDM-3A refers to a 3100 hp loco, while a WDM-3D would be a 3400 hp loco and WDM-3F would be 3600 hp loco.

Note: This classification system does not apply to steam locomotives in India as they have become non-functional now. They retained their original class names such as M class or WP class.

Diesel Locomotives are now fitted with Auxiliary Power Units which saves nearly 88% of Fuel during the idle time when train is not running.[28]

The number of goods wagons was 205,596 on 31 March 1951 and reached the maximum number 405,183 on 31 March 1980 after which it started declining and was 239,321 on 31 March 2012.[citation needed] The number is far less than the requirement, and the Indian Railways keeps losing freight traffic to road. Indian Railways carried 93 million tonnes of goods in 1950–51, and it increased to 1010 million tonnes in 2012–13.[29]

However, its share in goods traffic is much lower than road traffic. In 1951, its share was 65%, and the share of the road was 35%. Now the shares have been reversed, and the proportion of railways has declined to 30% and the share of road has increased to 70%.[citation needed]

Since the 1990s, Indian Railways has stopped single-wagon consignments and provides only full rake freight trains.[citation needed]

Wagon types include:[30]

Indian Railways has several types of passenger coaches.

The coaches used in Indian Railways are produced at Integral Coach Factory, Rail Coach Factory, Modern Coach Factory, Raebareli; including the new LHB coaches.

Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) coaches are used for suburban traffic in large cities – mainly Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, Pune, Hyderabad and Bangalore. These coaches numbered 7,793 on 31 March 2012. They have second class and first class seating accommodation.

Passenger coaches numbered 46,722 on 31 March 2012. Other coaches (luggage coach, parcel van, guard's coach, mail coach, etc.) numbered 6,560 on 31 March 2012.

The Chittaranjan Locomotive Works in Chittaranjan makes electric locomotives. The Diesel Locomotive Works in Varanasi makes diesel locomotives. The Integral Coach Factory in Perambur, Chennai makes integral coaches. These have a monocoque construction, and the floor is an integral unit with the undercarriage. The Rail Coach Factory in Kapurthala also makes coaches. The Rail Wheel Factory at Yelahanka, Bangalore and Rail Wheel Plant, Bela, Chhapra, Bihar manufactures wheels and axles, Diesel-Loco Modernisation Works, Patiala upgrade the WDM-2 Diesel loco from 2600 hp to 3100 hp. Some electric locomotives have been supplied by BHEL, Jhansi and Palakkad, and locomotive components are manufactured in several other plants around the country.[31]

Comparison of different gauges common in India with the standard gauge, which is not common in India

The total track length of network is 119,640 km (74,340 mi) while the total route length of the network is 66,687 km (41,437 mi). Track sections are rated for speeds ranging from 80 to 220 km/h (50 to 137 mph), though trains don't really clock speeds of 200 km/h. Maximum speed attained by passenger trains is 177 km/h-180 km/h (110 mph).

Indian gauge 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) (a broad gauge) is the predominant gauge used by Indian Railways with 108,500 km (67,400 mi) of track length (94% of entire track length of all the gauges) and 59,400 km (36,900 mi) of route-kilometre (91% of entire route-kilometre of all the gauges). It is the widest gauge in passenger use in the world. The first railway line built in India was broad gauge line from Bori Bunder (now Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus) to Thane in 1853.

Urban rail transit lines which serve the urban areas are in 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge (except suburban rail which is in Indian gauge). These encompass metro, monorail and trams. As of 2016, lines in operation are Kolkata (Calcutta) tram system, Delhi Metro, Rapid MetroRail Gurgaon, the Bangalore Metro and the Mumbai Metro. These lines are not operated by Indian Railways.[32]

On decreasing routes, the 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge and 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) and 610 mm (2 ft) narrow gauges are present. These were initially introduced in hilly regions for cost considerations and simpler engineering. The metre gauge has about 5,000 km (3,100 mi) of track length (4% of entire track length of all the gauges) and 4,100 km (2,500 mi) of route-kilometre (6% of entire route-kilometre of all the gauges), while narrow gauges have 1,500 km (930 mi) route-kilometre (2% of entire route-kilometre of all the gauges), as of 31 March 2016.

Sleepers (ties) are mostly made up of prestressed concrete. Metal and teak sleepers are still in use on a few lines. This are under conversion to concrete sleepers.

Main article: Central Organisation for Railway Electrification

Around 23,555 km (14,636 mi) of the route-kilometre or 43,357 km (26,941 mi) of running track was electrified, as of 31 March 2016. India uses 25 kV AC traction on all of its electrified tracks.[33]

Electrification started in India with the inauguration of the first electric train between Victoria Terminus now Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and Kurla on 3 February 1925 on the then existing Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIP) at 1500 V DC. The electric traction on the Central Railway was extended up to Igatpuri on the North East line and to Pune on the South East line. 1500 volt DC traction was introduced on the Western Railway between Colaba and Borivili on 5 January 1928 and between Madras Beach and Tambaram of the Southern Railway on 11 May 1931. This was primarily to meet the growing traffic on these metros. Till Independence, India had 388 km of electrification on DC traction.

In the post independence era, electrification of the Howrah-Burdwan section of the Eastern Railway was done at 3000 volt DC during the First Five Year Plan period and completed in 1958. The electric multiple unit (EMU) services were inaugurated in Howrah-Sheoraphuli section on 14 December 1957.

Indian Railways decided in 1957 to adopt the 25 kV AC system of electrification as a standard, with SNCF as their consultant in the initial stages. 25 kV AC traction is the most widely used electric traction in the world. The first section electrified on the 25 kV AC system was Raj Kharswan – Dongoaposi on the South Eastern Railway in 1960. The Howrah – Burdwan section of the Eastern Railway and Madras Beach – Tambaram section of the Southern Railway were converted to the 25 kV AC system by 1968. Considering the limitations in the existing 1500 volt DC, a decision was taken to convert to 25 kV AC traction during 1996-97. Conversion from DC traction to AC traction completed in mid 2010s.

See also: Railway signal and Railway signalling

The Indian Railways mostly use colour signal lights. Earlier the older semaphores and discs-based signalling (depending on the position or colour) were used, but these were replaced by colour signals.[34] Except for some high-traffic sections around large cities and junctions, the network does not use automatic block systems. However, the signals at stations are almost invariably interlocked with the setting of points (routes) and so safety does not depend on the skill of the station masters. With the planned introduction of Cab signalling/Anti collision devices the element of risk on account of drivers overshooting signals will also be eliminated.

Coloured signalling uses multi-coloured lighting, and in many places is automatically controlled. There are three modes:[34]

Multiple aspect signals, by providing several intermediate speed stages between 'clear' and 'on', allow high-speed trains sufficient time to brake safely if required. This becomes very important as train speeds rise. Without multiple-aspect signals, the stop signals must be placed far apart to allow sufficient braking distance and this reduces track utilisation. At the same time, slower trains can also be run closer together on track with multiple aspect signals.

See also: Rail transport in India § Rail links with adjacent countries

Existing rail links:

Under construction / Proposed links:

Main article: Indian Railways coaching stock Interior of a First Class(1A) compartment in the Rajdhani Express Interior of a 3-tier AC(3AC) compartment of the Dakshin Express Interior of an air-conditioned Chair Car (CC) coach in an Jan Shatabdi Express.

Indian Railways has several classes of travel with or without air conditioning. A train may have just one or many classes of travel. Slow passenger trains have only unreserved seating class whereas Rajdhani, Shatabdi, Garib Rath and Yuva trains have only air-conditioned classes. The fares for all classes are different with unreserved seating class being the cheapest. The fare of Rajdhani, Duronto and Shatabdi trains includes food served in the train, but the fare for other trains does not include food that has to be bought separately. From September 2016, the Indian Railways have introduced dynamic fares for all accommodation classes for Rajdhani, Duronto and Shatabdi trains(except 1AC and EC classes) to shore up revenue.[39] In long-distance trains a pantry car is usually included and the food is served at the berth or seat itself. Luxury trains such as Palace on Wheels have separate dining cars, but these trains cost as much as or more than a five-star hotel room.

A standard passenger rake has four unreserved (also called "general") compartments, two at the front and two at the end, of which one may be exclusively for ladies. The exact number of other coaches varies according to the demand and the route. A luggage compartment can also exist at the front or the back. In some mail trains, a separate mail coach is attached. Lavatories are communal and feature both the Indian style as well as the Western style.

The following table lists the classes in operation. A train may not have all these classes.

At the rear of the train is a special compartment known as the guard's cabin. It is fitted with a transceiver and is where the guard usually gives the all clear signal before the train departs.

Gatiman Express. A semi high speed train Mumbai Rajdhani Express. Rajdhanis are long-distance high-speed and high-priority trains connecting major state capitals with New Delhi Secunderabad Yeshwanthpur Garib-Rath Express. Garib-Raths are low cost A/C trains

Trains are sorted into various categories that dictate the number of stops along their route, the priority they enjoy on the network, and the fare structure. Each express train is identified by a five-digit number, the first digit as 1 and 2 for long-distance Express trains. If the first digit is 0, then the train is a Special. The first digit as 5 denotes a passenger train. The second digit indicates the zone that operates the train, the third the division within the zone that controls the train and is responsible for its regular maintenance and cleanliness, and the last two digits are the train's serial number.[43] The system was changed from four digits from 20 December 2010,[44] to accommodate an increasing number of trains.

For super-fast trains, the second digit is always 2 (the first remains 1 or 2),[43] the third digit is the zone, the fourth is the division and only the last digit is the serial number within the division. Trains travelling in opposite directions along the same route are usually labelled with consecutive numbers.[43] However, there is considerable variation in train numbers and some zones, such as Central Railway, has a less systematic method for numbering trains.[43] Most express trains also have a unique name that is usually exotic and taken from landmarks, famous people, rivers and so on.[45][46]

Trains are classified by their average speed.[47] A faster train has fewer stops ("halts") than a slower one and usually caters to long-distance travel.

An Indian Railway Ticket from Salem to Vijayawada by Howrah Mail.

India has some of the lowest train fares in the world, and passenger traffic is heavily subsidised by more expensive higher class fares.[57] Until the late 1980s, Indian Railway ticket reservations were done manually. In late 1987, the Railways started using a computerised ticketing system. The entire ticketing system went online in 1995 to provide up to date information on status and availability. Today the ticketing network is computerised to a large extent, with the exception of some remote places. Computerized tickets can be booked for any two points in the country. Tickets can also be booked through the internet and via mobile phones, though this method carries an additional surcharge.

Discounted tickets are available for senior citizens (above sixty years) and some other categories of passengers including the disabled, students, sports persons, persons affected by serious diseases, or persons appearing for competitive examinations. One compartment of the lowest class of accommodation is earmarked for ladies in every passenger carrying train. Some berths or seats in sleeper class and second class are also earmarked for ladies.[58] Season tickets permitting unlimited travel on specific sections or specific trains for a specific time period may also be available. Foreign tourists can buy an Indrail Pass,[59] which is modelled on the Eurail Pass, permitting unlimited travel in India for a specific time period.

For long-distance travel, reservation of a berth can be done for comfortable travel up to 120 days before the date of intended travel.[58] Details such as the name, age and concession (if eligible) are required and are recorded on the ticket. The ticket price usually includes the base fare, which depends on the classification of the train (example: super-fast surcharge if the train is classified as a super-fast), the class in which one wishes to travel and the reservation charge for overnight journeys.

If a seat is not available, then the ticket is given a wait listed number; else the ticket is confirmed, and a berth number is printed on the ticket. A person receiving a wait listed ticket must wait until there are enough cancellations to enable him to move up the list and obtain a confirmed ticket.[58][59] If his ticket is not confirmed on the day of departure, he may not board the train. Some of the tickets are assigned to the RAC or Reservation against Cancellation, which is between the waiting list and the confirmed list.[58][59] These allow the ticket holder to board the train and obtain an allotted seat decided by a ticket collector, after the ticket collector has ascertained that there is a vacant (absentee) seat.

Reserved Railway Tickets can be booked through the website of Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Ltd.[60] and also through mobile Phones and SMS. Tickets booked through this site are categorised into iTickets and eTickets. iTickets are booked by a passenger and then printed and delivered to the passenger for carrying during journey. eTickets are printed by the passenger and carried while travelling. While travelling on an eTicket, one must carry one of the authorised valid Photo Identity Cards. Cancellation of eTickets are also done online, without the requirement for the passenger to go to any counter. Unreserved tickets are available for purchase on the platform at any time before departure. An unreserved ticket holder may only board the general compartment class. All suburban networks issue unreserved tickets valid for a limited time period. For frequent commuters, a season pass (monthly or quarterly) guarantees unlimited travel between two stops.

In 1999, the Konkan Railway Corporation introduced the Roll on Roll off (RORO) service, a unique road-rail synergy system, on the section between Kolad in Maharashtra and Verna in Goa,[61] which was extended up to Surathkal in Karnataka in 2004.[62][63] The RORO service, the first of its kind in India, allowed trucks to be transported on flatbed trailers. It was highly popular,[64] carrying about 110,000 trucks and bringing in about 740 million worth of earnings to the corporation till 2007.[65]

Main article: Centralised Training Institutes of the Indian Railways

Staff are classified into gazetted (Group 'A' and 'B') and non-gazetted (Group 'C' and 'D') employees.[66] The recruitment of Group 'A' gazetted employees is carried out by the Union Public Service Commission through exams conducted by it.[67] The Recruitment of Group 'B' for the following post Section Officers, Junior Engineers, Depot Material Superintendent posts is conducted by Railway Recruitment Board. The recruitment to Group 'C' and 'D' employees on the Indian Railways is done through 21 Railway Recruitment Boards and Railway Recruitment Cells which are controlled by the Railway Recruitment Control Board (RRCB).[68] The training of all cadres is entrusted and shared between six centralised training institutes.

Indian Railways recruits for lower level positions like ASM, Goods Guard, Clerk, TA, CA, JE, Staff Nurse, Group D etc. through it RRB NTPC (Railway Recruitment Board Non-Technical ) Examination. For the year 2016, the examination was conducted to recruit around 18,000 positions however later Indian railways reduced the vacancies by 4000.[69]

Indian Railways is cash strapped and reported a loss of 300 billion (US$4.7 billion) in the passenger segment for the year ending March 2014. Operating ratio, a key metric used by Indian railways to gauge financial health, is 109% for the period April - Dec in 2016.[70] Railways carry a social obligation of over 200 billion (US$3.1 billion). The loss per passenger-km increased to 23 paise (0.36¢ US) by the end of March 2014. Indian Railways is left with a surplus cash of just 6.9 billion (US$110 million) by the end of March 2014.[71]

It was estimated in 2014 that over 5 trillion (US$78 billion) is required to complete the ongoing projects alone. The railway is consistently losing market share to other modes of transport both in freight and passengers.[72]

New rail line projects are often announced during the Railway Budget annually without securing additional funding for them. Between 2004 and 2014, 99 New Line projects worth 600 billion (US$9.3 billion) were sanctioned out of which only one project is complete till date, and there are four projects that are as old as 30 years but are still not complete for one reason or another.[71]

There are two UNESCO World Heritage Sites on Indian Railways. – The Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus[73] and the Mountain Railways of India. The latter consists of three separate railway lines located in different parts of India:[74]

Main article: Future of the Indian Railways

Indian Railways has a full-fledged organisation known as Research Designs and Standards Organisation (RDSO), located at Lucknow for all research, designs and standardisation tasks.

Solar DEMU Train


In August 2013, Indian Railways entered into a partnership with Indian Institute of Technology (Madras) to develop technology to trap solar energy for lighting and air-conditioning in the coaches. This would significantly reduce the fossil fuel dependency for Indian Railways.[77]

Recently it developed and tested the Improved Automated Fire Alarm System in Rajdhani Express Trains. It is intended that the system be applied to AC coaches of all regular trains.[78]

In recent years, Indian Railways has undertaken several initiatives to upgrade its ageing infrastructure and enhance its quality of service. The Indian government plans to invest 9.05 trillion (US$140 billion) to upgrade the railways by 2020.[79] Indian Railways is refurbishing 12-15 year old coaches at Carriage Rehabilitation Workshop in Bhopal to enhance passenger amenities and fire safety measures.[80][81] Selected passengers with confirmed tickets will now be allowed to transfer them to someone else, but only once.IRCTC is now offering a pay-on-delivery option for train tickets on its website and app, where the customers can book the tickets and pay when it is delivered.

In July 2017 Indian Railways rolled out its first DEMU train with rooftop solar panels that power the lights, fans, and information display systems inside passenger coaches.[82]

Main article: High-speed rail in India

India does not have any railways classified as high-speed rail (HSR), which have operational speeds in excess of 200 km/h (120 mph).[83] The fastest train in India is the Gatimaan Express with a top speed of 160 km/h (99 mph),[84][85] which runs between Delhi and Agra.[86]

Prior to the 2014 general election, the two major national parties (Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress(INC)) pledged to introduce high-speed rail. The INC pledged to connect all of India's million-plus cities by high-speed rail,[87] whereas BJP, which won the election, promised to build the Diamond Quadrilateral project, which would connect the cities of Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai via high-speed rail.[88] This project was approved as a priority for the new government in the incoming president's speech.[89] Construction of one kilometer of high speed railway track will cost 100 crore (US$16 million) - 140 crore (US$22 million) which is 10-14 times higher than the construction of standard railway.[90]

India's prime minister Narendra Modi approved the choice of Japan to build India's first high-speed railway. The planned rail would run some 500 km (310 mi) between Mumbai and the western city of Ahmedabad, at a top speed of 320 km/h (200 mph).[91][92] Under the proposal, construction is expected to begin in 2017 and be completed in 2023. It would cost about 980 billion (US$15 billion) and be financed by a low-interest loan from Japan.[93] India will use the wheel-based 300 km/hr HSR technology, instead of new maglev 600 km/hr technology of the Japan used in Chuo Shinkansen. India is expected to have its HSR line operational from 2025 onwards, once the safety checks are completed.

The bio-toilets, which have been developed by the railways and the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), have a colony of anaerobic bacteria, kept in a container under the lavatories that convert human waste into water and small amounts of gases. The gases are released into the atmosphere and the water is discharged after chlorination on to the track. The railways currently uses flush toilets in trains, in which human waste is dumped directly on the track. This makes the environment unhygienic and railway stations an eyesore, apart from the fact that the faecal matter corrodes the tracks.

Southern Railways officials say that except for the first- and two-tier AC coaches of Uzhavan Express, the remaining 34 coaches have been fitted with bio-toilets. "These toilets aim at zero defecation on the ground," says Vinay Srivastava, former director-in-charge of the bio-toilet project who is currently working as Director, Ministry of Environment and Forests.

More bio-toilets have been fitted into coaches this year[clarification needed]more than the total bio-toilets fitted in the last three years. According to an IR source, the number of bio-toilets fitted in passenger train coaches from April to July this year this year[clarification needed] was 2,285, against 1,337 bio-toilets fitted during 2012-13, 169 during 2011-12, and 57 during 2010-11.

In 2015, plans were disclosed for building two locomotive factories in the state of Bihar, at Madhepura (electric locomotive) and at Marhaura (Diesel Locomotive).[94] Both factories involve foreign partnerships. The diesel locomotive works will be jointly operated in a partnership with General Electric, which has invested 20.52 billion (US$320 million) for its construction, and the electric locomotive works with Alstom, which has invested 12.935 billion (US$200 million). The factories will provide Indian Railways with 800 electric locomotives of 12,000 horse power each, and a mix of 1,000 diesel locomotives of 4,500 and 6,000 horsepower each.[95] In November 2015, further details of the 146.56 billion (US$2.3 billion) partnership with GE were announced: Indian Railways and GE would engage in an 11-year joint venture in which GE would hold a majority stake of 74%. Under the terms of the joint venture, Indian Railways would purchase 100 goods locomotives a year for 10 years beginning in 2017; the locomotives would be modified versions of the GE Evolution series.[96] The diesel locomotive works will be built by 2018; GE will import the first 100 locomotives and manufacture the remaining 900 in India from 2019, also assuming responsibility for their maintenance over a 13-year period.[97] In the same month, a 200 billion (US$3.1 billion) partnership with Alstom to supply 800 electric locomotives from 2018 to 2028 was announced.[79]

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