IGCSE is expanded as International General Certificate of Secondary Education in chirle. It is a popular international certification for the secondary school. It is also referred to as O-Level or year 11 or fifth form in respective schools and countries, prior to proceeding to advanced levels such as the sixth form or A-level or 12 &13 year or even the pre-university studies.
IGCSE was previously University of CIE, Cambridge International Examinations, in 1988. In fact, since 1858, University of Cambridge is the UK local examination board. The term “IGCSE” is a trademark registered of University of Cambridge. Normally, when someone says IGCSE, it is taken as the IGCSE Cambridge from the CIE board.
The curricula of the IGCSE are similar to O-Level rather than the GCSE UK national curriculums. Thus, the examination basis is considered rigorous and more challenging.
Which is the Best IGCSE Coaching Classes in chirle?
The 3 Mistakes of My Life is the third novel written by Chetan Bhagat. The book was published in May 2008 and had an initial print-run of 420,000. The novel follows the story of three friends and is based in the city of Ahmedabad in western India.
This is the third best seller novel by Chetan Bhagat.
Govind: Govind Jaat Patel is an ordinary guy with whom anybody can relate. He has very few desires. His main ambition is to become a businessman as he thinks that, being a Gujarati, business is in his blood. His best friends are Omi and Ish (Ishaan). Govind is doubtful or noncommittal about something. His father has abandoned him and his mother runs a small business. He makes extra income by tutoring maths. He continues these sessions even after starting the cricket shop. He is the narrator of this story and the one who makes the title's "Three Mistakes". During the course of the story he falls in love with Vidya, Ishan's younger sister for whom he is a private tutor. Govind looks after the financial part of the business as he has good business sense and mathematical skills.
Ishaan (Ish) is a big cricket freak and a patriot. Ishaan was the best cricketer in his locality and school. He suggests the name of their business as "Team India Cricket Shop". He helps Govind's business by organising daily cricket coaching camps. He has a younger sister, Vidya, about whom he is quite protective. When he discovers that a boy named Ali is a very talented batsman, he decides to go any length to give Ali proper training. Ishaan usually looks after day-to-day shop activities as he has genuine interest in anything cricket-related.
Omi is the son of the Hindu priest of the local temple. His family enjoys great respect among the people. Through Omi's parents and maternal uncle (who own few shops as a part of the temple trust property), they readily get a place to start their business. He is a rather dumb boy and has not many dreams, but he likes to concentrate on having a healthy body. However, he resents growing up and being a saint like his father. He is a religious person and eventually takes active part in his maternal uncle's religious politics. He is, however, confused about his religious views which are mainly influenced by Bittoo Mama.
Vidya is Ishan's younger sister. She is a rebel at heart and dreams to break free from the constraints of a typical middle-class family and society, to go to Mumbai, do a course in PR and become independent. She, however, despises maths which is required for her medical entrance exams. Hence, Ish asks Govind to take her mathematics tuition. In between their tuition they fall in love which is kept a secret.
Ali is one of the students in Ish's coaching classes and a great batsman because of a rare gift of nature. However, he doesn't play much cricket as he gets tired after three or four balls; he enjoys playing marbles. He is a Muslim and respects Ish like a Guru. He, like Ishaan, is patriotic at heart. He denies the offer of Australian scholarship and wants to play on the Indian side.
Bittoo Mama is the maternal uncle of Omi. Mama runs the trust of the temple and agrees to rent the place to the three friends for the cricket shop. He is an active member of a Hindu political party. He follows the preachings of Parekh-ji, a political-cum-spiritual leader and has complete faith in him. He has locked his horns with Ali's father who belongs to the Secular Party. He has a son, Dhiraj. Mama is not fond of Govind as he is an agnostic. He is the main antagonist of the story.
Govind's mom wants her son to pursue a degree in Engineering. She runs a home-made food business. She cares about Govind a lot and supports him well through his hardships and struggles.
Ali's father: He is a devout Muslim and works for a secular party. He is a very kind-hearted person who wants Ali to take his education seriously despite his mediocre financial condition. He treats the three friends very well when they go to visit Ali in his house. Overall he is a good person.
Fred Li: He is an Australian Cricket Team member and a fast bowler. He invites the three friends and Ali to Sydney when they travel to Goa to see India-Australia One Day International and meet him in the stands. He spots talent in Ali and wants to help him getting a chance to be trained in his academy in Australia. Loosely based on Brett Lee.
- Govind had paid a huge amount for buying a shop in Navrangpura shopping mall even though his friends tried to stop him. The mall later got destroyed due to 2001 Gujarat earthquakes .
- He fell in love with and had physical intimacy (sexual relationship) with Vidya, Ish's sister
- He waited a split second and dived too late to save Ali because of his own selfishness. Ali's wrist was destroyed.
Critics across the country were not too impressed with the book and some even suggested that it was not as good as his previous work. The public reception was good and The 3 Mistakes of My Life sold a lot of copies in the first few weeks.
This English national bestseller has been published in Gujarati language by a leading Gujarati book publisher, M.B.D., based in Ahmedabad & Mumbai. This book has been translated into Tamil and is published by Diamond Pocket Books. The French translation was released by Cherche Midi publisher in March 2010 as Les 3 erreurs de ma vie. It was translated into Sinhala by Dileepa Jayakodi in 2011 as Thun Thakatheerukan Karapu Kenek Man.
The movie version of the novel is Kai Po Che! directed by Abhishek Kapoor starring Sushant Singh Rajput, Amit Sadh; it was released in February 2013. The film and the book are set in Gujarat, hence the title Kai Po Che!
- ^ Bhagat., Chetan (May 2008). The 3 Mistakes of My Life. Ahmedabad: rupa. pp. http://www.chetanbhagat.com/books/t3mml/. ISBN 978-8129135513.
- ^ "चेतन भगत की पुस्तकों के हिंदी संस्करणों ने मचाई धूम- 2008100554287800 | India - Oneindia Hindi". Thatshindi.oneindia.in. 2008-10-05. Retrieved 2013-05-18.
How To Choose The Best Tutor for the SAT, ACT, and GCSEs
Not to be confused with Legal guardian or Tutor (officer).
A tutor is an instructor who gives private lessons. Shadow education is a name for private supplementary tutoring that is offered outside the mainstream education system.
Normally, a tutor will help a student who is struggling in a subject of some sort. Also, a tutor may be provided for a student who wants to learn at home.
In the United States, the term "tutor" is generally associated with one who gives professional instruction (sometimes within a school setting but often independently) in a given topic or field.See also: Teaching assistant (United Kingdom)
In British and Irish secondary schools, form tutors are given the responsibilities of a form or class of students in a particular year group (up to 30 students). They usually work in year teams headed by a year leader, year head, or guidance teacher.
Form tutors will provide parents with most of the information about their child's progress and any problems they might be experiencing. Ordinarily, the form tutor is the person who contacts a parent if there is a problem at school; however, the year leader or guidance teacher may contact the parents, since the form tutor has full-time responsibility as a specialist subject teacher.
A 2012 study by the Asian Development Bank and the Comparative Education Research Centre at the University of Hong Kong pointed out that private tutoring can dominate the lives of young people and their families, maintain and exacerbate social inequalities, divert needed household income into an unregulated industry, and create inefficiencies in education systems. It can also undermine official statements about fee-free education and create threats to social cohesion.
In South Korea, nearly 90% of elementary students receive some sort of shadow education. In Hong Kong, about 85% of senior secondary students do so. 60% of primary students in West Bengal, India, and 60% of secondary students in Kazakhstan receive private tutoring.
Demand for tutoring in Asia is exploding; by comparison globally, shadow education is most extensive in Asia. This is partly due to the stratification of education systems, cultural factors, perceptions of shortcomings in regular school systems, and the combination of growing wealth and smaller family sizes. Therefore, the education sector has become a profitable industry which businesses have created different kinds of products and advertisement such us "the king/queen of tutorial", a usual advertisement tactic of Hong Kong tutorial centers that has spread to South Korea, Thailand, Sri Lanka and India where tutors achieve "celebrity-like status". In some cases, successful Southeast Asian tutors will even embrace the title of "tutor". Online private tutor matching platform and online learning platform offering online learning materials are other creations.
In Cambodia, most tutoring is provided by teachers, whereas in Hong Kong, it is provided by individuals, small companies or large companies. In Mongolia, most tutoring is labor-intensive, while entrepreneurs in South Korea make use of computers and other forms of technology.
Some studies have estimated costs associated with "shadow education". In Pakistan, expenditures on tutoring per child averaged $3.40 a month in 2011. In India, average spending was lower, but still equated to about $2 per month.
In Georgia, household expenditures for private tutoring at the secondary school level was $48 million in 2011. In Hong Kong, the business of providing private tutoring to secondary schools reached $255 million in 2011.
In India, a 2008 survey estimated the size of the private tutoring sector to be $6.4 billion. In Japan, families spent a whopping $12 billion in 2010 on private tutoring.
In the Republic of Korea, where the government has attempted to cool down the private tutoring market, shadow education costs have continually grown, reaching a staggering $17.3 billion in 2010. Household expenditures on private tutoring are equivalent to about 80% of government expenditures on public education for primary and secondary students.
In the United States, the tutoring market is fragmented. Some online tutoring marketplaces, however, have managed to aggregate a large number of private tutors on their platform and also tutoring data. For example, one such site has over 34,000 registered tutors in California and made tutoring hourly rate data for California public.
In many countries, individuals can become tutors without training. In some countries, including Cambodia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Lao PDR, and Tajikistan, the pattern of classroom teachers supplementing their incomes by tutoring students after school hours is more a necessity than a choice, as many teachers’ salaries hover close to the poverty line.
In the Republic of Korea, the number of private tutors expanded roughly 7.1% annually on average from 2001 to 2006, and by 2009 the sector was the largest employer of graduates from the humanities and social sciences.
Private tutoring is not always effective in raising academic achievement; and in some schools students commonly skip classes or sleep through lessons because they are tired after excessive external study. This means that the shadow system can make regular schooling less efficient.
Teachers who spend more time focusing on private lessons than regular classes can cause greater inefficiencies in the mainstream school system. Situations in which teachers provide extra private lessons for pupils for whom they are already responsible in the public system can lead to corruption, particularly when teachers deliberately teach less in their regular classes in order to promote the market for private lessons.
When private tutoring is provided by well trained tutor however the effects can be dramatic, with pupils improving performance by two standard deviations. See also Bloom's 2 Sigma Problem.
A 2012 study by the Asian Development Bank and the Comparative Education Research Centre at the University of Hong Kong recommended policymakers across the region take a closer look at how ‘shadow education’ affects family budgets, children’s time, and national education systems. It suggested that in order to reduce the need for private lessons, improvements in mainstream schools should be made. Regulations are also needed to protect consumers.
A private tutor is a private instructor who teaches a specific subject or skill to an individual student or small group of students. Such attention ideally allows the student to improve knowledge or skills more rapidly than in a classroom setting. Tutors are often privately hired and paid by the student, the student's family or an agency. Some are used for remedial students or others needing special attention; some provide more advanced material for exceptionally capable and highly motivated students, or in the context of homeschooling. Tutoring can also occur when one adult helps another adult student to study a specific course or subject that he/she is taking to get a better result. The adult can also let the student work on his/her own, and can be there if the student has any questions. The ultimate goal of a private tutor is to foster independence. When a student no longer requires private tutoring, the tutor successfully puts him/herself out of a job. Ironic as it may seem, a tutor's professional reputation is often measured in terms of the degree of self-imposed obsolescence.
Academic coaching is an evolution of mentoring applied to academics. Coaching involves a collaborative approach. Coaches try to help students learn how they best learn and how to operate in an academic environment. Tutors help students learn the material in individual courses while coaches help students learn how to be successful in school. In college, that includes such topics as: study skills, time management, stress management, effective reading, note-taking, test-taking, and understanding how to use a syllabus. Academic coaches meet with the student regularly throughout the semester. Coaches work with students in all kinds of situations, not just those who are struggling academically. Some highly motivated, high-achieving students will have a coach to improve their learning efficiency. Academic coaching also occurs to help students prepare for entrance exams to gain entry to schools or universities. Tutoring may even be used for the whole application process to university. Academic coaching is a huge industry in Asia. For example, in India, a majority of students, be it of any class or stream, visit a coaching center or a "study circle."
Sometimes, current students act as tutors to other students. Sometimes, a classroom setting is not enough for a student to learn all of the material that they need to know in order to pass the test or to go on to harder classes. Academic tutoring from students at a higher grade level or experience in an academic setting can help to encourage and strengthen a student so that they do not fall behind.
For students, helping other students will be beneficial because the students can check themselves while they teach the lesson(s).Main article: Online tutoring Computer based learning at a tuition centre
Online tutoring is a new way for a student to receive help, either scheduled or on-demand. Sessions are done through an application where a student and tutor can communicate. Common tools include chat, whiteboard, web conferencing, teleconferencing and other specialized applets which make it easier to convey information back and forth. For example, there are specialized applets designed specifically for mathematics which allow the use of mathematical symbols. There is also an example-tracing tutor program that uses a behavior graph. The tutor is able to create an outline program that works a specific problem step by step. The process is activated once the student selects that problem. This is helpful for those who need help but are not able to meet face to face with someone.
Online tutoring has been gaining popularity over the past couple of years due to the ease of being able to connect to a tutor at moment's notice when help is required. This is especially effective when a student is studying for a test that is scheduled for the next day at school and is stumped on a particular problem. Not all online tutoring companies offer an on-demand tutoring service.Main article: In-home tutoring
In-home tutoring is a form of tutoring that occurs in the home. Most often the tutoring relates to an academic subject or test preparation. This is in contrast to tutoring centers or tutoring provided through after-school programs. The service most often involves one-on-one attention provided to the pupil.
Solution assistance is a growing trend in the field of mathematics tutoring. This method of checking the accuracy of answers is particularly helpful for students without a computer or those students that live in remote areas.
In Canada and the United States, writing tutor is the common term used for individuals working one-on-one with students in college and university writing centers. The terms tutor and consultant are often used interchangeably, and both terms are used with deliberation as they are seen to represent a specific relationship, role, or activity between tutor and tutee. For example, Griffin, Keller, Pandey, Pedersen, and Skinner in their 2003-2004 survey of North American writing centers describe a tutor as an expert providing a less expert learner with knowledge, implying a transmission approach. In contrast, the consultant, also expert, collaborates with the tutee in addressing the writing task, implying a social constructivist approach. The focus of the social constructionism paradigm is to get rid of the idea that tutors are an authoritarian figure instead of someone who the student can collaborate with. Social constructionism is the dominant approach used in writing centers today versus the expressivism approach that was favored in the 1970s and 1980s. Others who use the term writing tutor describe the tutor as facilitating learning through active listening, responding, as well as using silence and wait time. Taking the cue from the student, these writing tutors function much like the consultants described by Griffin et al., offering suggestions and working together on a given writing task. Regardless of the title, the intent and actions of the tutor are important to writing center practitioners. A tutor may say he/she is acting collaboratively with the student and unknowingly be enforcing her or his own agenda.